[Inhaltsverzeichnis von Engels]

1) Lewis H. Morgan, Ancient Society p. 1
2) J. W. B. Money, Java, or How to Manage a Colony " 99.
3) Sir J. Phear: The Aryan Village in India & Ceylon " 128
4) Dr. Rud. Sohm, Fränkisches Recht & Römisches Recht " 155.
5) Sir H. S. Maine, Lectures on the Early History of Institutions " 160
6)  Marx besaß das Buch. Sein Exemplar, mit zahlreichen Marginalien von ihm, ist überliefert (siehe MEGA² IV/32. Nr. 578). Seine im vorliegenden Heft, S. 198–201, angefertigten Exzerpte aus dem Buch sind publiziert in: MEGA² IV/31. S. 467–473.
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E. Hospitalier, Les principales applications de l’électricité
" 198.|

[Bibliographische Notizen]

Aus:
Henry Sumner Maine: Lectures on the early history of institutions. London 1875.
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 Marx hat schon im Heft 1877 diesen Titel sowie einige Auzüge daraus notiert nach Henry Adams: The Anglo-Saxon Courts of Law. In: Essays in Anglo-Saxon Law. Boston 1876. S. 1–54. Im vorliegenden Heft exzerpiert er eine andere Arbeit von Sohm (Fränkisches Recht und römisches Recht. Prolegomena zur deutschen Rechtsgeschichte. Weimar 1880).
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Sohm: „Fränkische Reichs- u. Rechtsgeschichte Gerichtsverfassung.

W. F. Skene: „The Highlanders of Scotland“, 1837.

Idem: see his edit. of the Scotch chronicler Fordun (1872).   Bei Maine, S. 6: the same eminent antiquarian [Skene], in an appendix to his edition of the Scottish chronicler, Fordun, published in 1872 […] – S. 101/102: Mr. Skene’s valuable note on “Tribe Communities in Scotland” (appended to the second volume of his edition of Fordun’s Chronicle)
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Hier, in Second volume note on „Tribe Communities in Scotland“. nämlich his appendix dazu

  Bei Maine, S. 6: Quite recently, also, M. Le Play and others have come upon plain traces of such communities in several parts of France.
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Das Zeug des Le Play.

 Bei Maine, S. 9: the Ancient Laws of Ireland, the so-called Brehon laws – S. 8: The first volume […] was published in 1865; the second in 1869; the third […] has only just appeared.

Engels hatte 1870 die bis dahin erschienenen zwei Bände erworben und darin „herumgestöbert“ (siehe seinen Brief an Marx vom 29. April 1870; siehe auch die Briefe vom 29. November 1869, 9. Februar, 22. Februar, 7. März, 8. Mai und 15. Mai 1870). Das Exemplar des zweiten Bandes aus seinem Besitz ist überliefert (siehe MEGA² IV/32. Nr. 18).
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Ancient Law Laws of Ireland Brehon laws. (translation published at the expence of Gvt, first vol. pub. 1865, 2nd vol. 1869, 3d 1875 1873)

Aus:
E[dward] B[urnett] Tylor: Forschungen über die Urgeschichte der Menschheit und die Entwickelung der Civilisation. Aus dem Englischen von H. Müller. Leipzig [1866]
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 Marx besaß das Buch von Tylor in der deutschen Übersetzung (E[dward] B[urnett] Tylor: Forschungen über die Urgeschichte der Menschheit und die Entwickelung der Civilisation. Aus dem Englischen von H. Müller. Leipzig [1866]). Sein Exemplar, mit zahlreichen Marginalien von ihm, ist überliefert (siehe MEGA² IV/32. Nr. 1339). Marx erwähnte Tylors „Forschungen“ in den Manuskripten zum zweiten Buch des „Kapital“ (siehe MEGA² II/11). Auch bei Morgan wird Goguet genannt, aber nur der Name, ohne Titel des Werks, und mit falscher Schreibweise (Goquet). Siehe Morgan: Ancient Society. London 1877. S. 13, Fn. 1, sowie Marx’ Notizen unten.
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Goguet: „De l’origine des lois“.

Aus:
Henry Sumner Maine: Lectures on the early history of institutions. London 1875.
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 Bei Maine, S. 18: Edmund Spenser, in his “View of the State of Ireland,” […] – Die 1596 verfasste Schrift von Spencer war erstmals 1633 und danach in mehreren Ausgaben erschienen. Maine benutzte anscheinend die Ausgabe von 1633 (Edmund Spenser: A view of the state of Ireland, written dialogue-wise betweene Eudoxus and Irenæus, in the yeare 1596 … Dublin 1633. In: The historie of Ireland, collected by three learned authors, viz. Meredith Hanmer, Edmund Campion, and Edmund Spenser. Dublin 1633). Engels besaß eine spätere Ausgabe, die vermutlich Marx bekannter war (Edmund Spencer: A view of the state of Ireland … reprinted in: Ancient Irish histories. The works of Spencer, Campion, Hanmer, and Marleburrough. In 2 vol. Vol. 1. Dublin 1809). Sein Exemplar ist überliefert (siehe MEGA² IV/32. Nr. 17). Um 1870 hatte Engels es in seinem „Heft VI“ auch exzerpiert (IISG, Marx-Engels-Nachlass, Sign. J 20, S. 1–6).
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Spencer
.│ Engels exzerpierte 1869/1870 Sir John Davies, Historical Tracts, 1786 in seinem „Heft V“ (IISG, Marx-Engels-Nachlass, Sign. J 16, S. 2–9). In seinen Briefen an Marx zu dieser Zeit erwähnte er ihn häufig als Quelle für die alten irischen Gesetze (siehe Engels an Marx, 29. November, 13. Dezember 1869, 15. April, 29. April, 11. Mai 1870). Marx erwähnte ihn in seinem Brief an Engels vom 10. Dezember 1869: „Den Davies habe ich extractweis viel gelesen. Das Buch selbst hatte ich nur oberflächlich durchblättert im Museum. Du verpflichtest mich also, wenn Du mir die auf common property bezüglichen Stellen ausschreibst.“
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Sir John Davis
 Zusatz von Marx. Vermutlich bezieht sich Marx auf John P[atrick] Prendergast: The Cromwellian settlement of Ireland. London 1865. Engels exzerpierte dieses Buch um 1870 (kurze Auszüge innerhalb seiner Exzerpten aus Matthew O’Conor: The history of the Irish catholics from the settlement in 1691 … Pt. 1. Dublin 1813, IISG, Marx-Engels-Nachlass, Sign. J 18; J 20, S. 12–21; J 21, S. 1/2). Er erwähnte es in seinen Briefen an Marx vom 17. November, 29. November, 13. Dezember 1869 (zusammen mit Davies), 19. Januar und 25. Januar 1870 sowie in seinem Brief an Jenny Longuet vom 24. Februar 1881 (RGASPI, Sign. f. 1, op. 1, d. 5661). Marx erwähnte es in seinem Brief an Engels vom 17. Dezember 1869. Das Buch war, so Engels in seinem Brief an Marx vom 25. Januar 1870, „wichtig wegen der vielen Auszüge aus ungedruckten Acten“. Die zweite Ausgabe (London 1870) erwähnte Engels in einem Brief an Sigismund Ludwig Borkheim von Anfang März 1872 (siehe Borkheim an Friedrich Adolph Sorge, 15. März 1872, RGASPI, Sign. f. 1, op. 1, d. 5787 (Kopie)).
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Prendergast.

Published by the Government of Madras: „Papers on Mirasi Right“ (Madras 1862).

 Bei Maine, S. 77: M. Rénan has discovered them [i.e. village-communities] among the obscurer Semitic tribes in Northern Africa. – Vermutlich bezog sich Maine auf Ernest Renan: La société Berbère. In: Revue des deux mondes. 43. année – seconde période. T. 107. Paris 1873. S. 138–157. Allerdings handelte es sich bei diesem Artikel um die Besprechung eines kurz zuvor erschienenen einschlägigen Werks (A[dolphe] Hanoteau, A[ristide] Letourneux: La Kabylie et les coutumes kabyles. Vol. 1–3. Paris 1872/1873), und Renan erklärte einleitend, dass die Berber weder zur „groupe indo-européen“ noch zur „groupe sémitique“ gehörten, sondern eine eigene Gruppe bildeten.
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Renan (Semitic tribes in Northern Africa).

Patterson (Fortnightly Review. N. XCIV XLIV) (House Community in Croatia, Dalmatia, Illyria).

Dupin ( Zusatz von Marx. Bei Maine, S. 80: It is a remarkable fact that assemblages of kinsmen, almost precisely the counterpart of the House-Communities surviving among the Slavonians, were observed bei M. Dupin, in 1840, in the French Department of the Nièvre

Maine bezieht sich offensichtlich auf [André Marie Jean Jacques Dupin:] Excursion dans la Nièvre. Visite à la communauté de Jault. Lettre de M. Dupin à M. Étienne. Rassigny en Morvan, le 22 septembre 1840. Paris [1840].
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nicht wo!
1840 über House Communities in Departement of Nièvre.)

Freeman: „Comparative Politics“.

Tocqueville: „Ancien régime“ (see I. 18)│Coote: „Neglected Fact in English History“.

Rev. H. Dugmore: „Compendium of Kaffir Laws and Customs“.Thorpe: „Ancient Laws“.

Hunter. „Orissa“.

Sullivan: edition of O’Curry’s Lectures, at the end of wich translated the Crith Gablach, a Brehon tract.

Dasent: „Story of Burnt Njal“. Coote: „Neglected Fact in English History“.
 Die 1596 verfasste Schrift war erstmals 1633 und danach in mehreren Ausgaben erschienen. Maine benutzte anscheinend die Ausgabe von 1633 (Edmund Spenser: A view of the state of Ireland, written dialogue-wise betweene Eudoxus and Irenæus, in the yeare 1596. … Dublin 1633. In: The historie of Ireland, collected by three learned authors, viz. Meredith Hanmer, Edmund Campion, and Edmund Spenser. Dublin 1633). Engels besaß eine spätere Ausgabe, die vermutlich Marx bekannter war (Edmund Spencer: A view of the state of Ireland …; reprinted in: Ancient Irish histories. The works of Spencer, Campion, Hanmer, and Marleburrough. In 2 vol. Vol. 1. Dublin 1809). Sein Exemplar ist überliefert (siehe MEGA² IV/32. Nr. 17). Um 1870 hatte Engels es in seinem „Heft VI“ auch exzerpiert (IISG, Marx-Engels-Nachlass, Sign. J 20, S. 1–6).
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Spencer: „View of the State of Ireland“.
 Engels exzerpierte 1869/1870 Sir John Davies, Historical Tracts, 1786 in seinem „Heft V“ (IISG, Marx-Engels-Nachlass, Sign. J 16, S. 2–9). In seinen Briefen an Marx aus dieser Zeit erwähnt er ihn häufig als Quelle für die alten irischen Gesetze (siehe Engels an Marx, 29. November, 13. Dezember 1869, 15. April, 29. April und 11. Mai 1870). Marx erwähnte ihn in seinem Brief an Engels vom 10. Dezember 1869: „Den Davies habe ich extractweis viel gelesen. Das Buch selbst hatte ich nur oberflächlich durchblättert im Museum. Du verpflichtest mich also, wenn Du mir die auf common property bezüglichen Stellen ausschreibst.“
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Sir John Davis: „Historical relations“.

Aus:
Thomas Strange: Hindu law; Principally with Reference to Such Portions of it as Concern the Administration of Justice, in the King’s Courts, in India, London 1830
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 Vermutlich bezieht sich Strange auf R[obert] Rickards: India; or, facts submitted to illustrate the character and condition of the native inhabitants, with suggestions for reforming the present system of government. Pt. 1.4. London 1828–1832. Siehe bes. Pt. 1. S. 5–43 (Section 1: Casts of the Natives of India). Stranges Werk „Hindu Law“ erwähnt bzw. exzerpiert Marx im vorliegenden Heft in seinen Notizen aus Maine auf S. 186–189.
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See Rickards on subject of »Castes«
;  Hebers Bericht wird auch von H. C. Irwin erwähnt, aus dessen Buch Marx die folgenden bibliographischen Notizen übernimmt. Siehe bei Irwin, S. 112/113: We get an interesting glimpse of Oudh as it was in 1824 from Bishop Heber’s journal.

sd. edit. (vor \ in Year 1830): Zusatz von Marx.
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also Bishop Heber’s „Narrative“ v. II, p. 327, sd. edit. (vor \ in Year 1830)

Aus:
H[enry] C[rossley] Irwin: The garden of India; or chapters on Oudh history and affairs. London 1880.
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Col. Sleeman (Reise durch Oude).  Zusatz von Marx.

Die Angaben zu den Publikationen von Sleeman, Shore, Butter und Bell entnahm Marx dem Buch H[enry] C[rossley] Irwin: The garden of India; or chapters on Oudh history and affairs. London 1880. Das Buch befand sich in seinem Besitz, er hatte es von Irwin selbst erhalten. Sein Exemplar, mit zahlreichen Marginalien von ihm, ist überliefert (siehe MEGA² IV/32. Nr. 610 und Entstehung und Überlieferung zu Heft 1880/1881). Marx hat das Buch in seinen Exzerpten aus Maine im vorliegenden Heft erwähnt. Siehe die Sachanmerkung zu „Noch heut zu Tag …“.
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(sehr wichtig)

Dr Butter’s Report on the Southern District of Oudh. (1837)

Shore: „Notes on Indian Affairs“ u. Id. „Present State and Prospects of Oude“ (written 1835).

Dr. Butter: „Outlines of the Topography and Statistics of the Southern Districts of Oudh“. (1837)

Sleeman: „Tour in Oude“ (3 months’ march through Oude (1st of December 1849 bis 28 Febr. 1850;  Bei Irwin S. 140: a work which bears much the same relation, to compare small things with great, to the subsequent annexation of the province and the course of the mutiny, that Arthur Young’s “Travels in France” bears to the first French Revolution
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ist Analogon of Arthur Young’s „Travels in France“ vor d. French Revolution
).

Major Evans Bell: „Retrospects and Prospects of Indian Policy“.

Aus:
Lewis H[enry] Morgan: Ancient society or researches in the lines of human progress from savagery, through barbarism to civilization. London 1877.
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Quoted by Morgan.

 Letters on the Iroquois, by Skenandoah: addressed to Albert Gallatin, President New York Historical Society. In: The American Review: a Whig journal. New York. Vol. 5. 1847. Nr. 2, February. S. 177–190; Nr. 3, March. S. 242–257; Nr. 5, May. S. 447–461; Vol. 6. 1847. Nr. 5, November. S. 477–490; Nr. 6, December. S. 626–633. (Morgan, S. 65.) Marx hat diesen Titel nachträglich hinzugefügt (siehe Faksimile von S. [1a]).
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L. H. Morgan: in American Review, 1847: „Letters on the Iroquois by Skenandoah“.

 Marx hat dieses Buch auch in seinem Notizbuch aus den Jahren 1880/1881 zweimal vermerkt.
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Lubbock: Prehistoric times.

 Marx besaß das Buch in der deutschen Übersetzung von H. Müller: Forschungen über die Urgeschichte der Menschheit und die Entwickelung der Civilisation. Leipzig 1866. Sein Exemplar, mit zahlreichen Marginalien von ihm, ist überliefert (siehe MEGA² IV/32. Nr. 1339). Der Titel ist in den Manuskripten zum zweiten Buch des „Kapital“ erwähnt (siehe MEGA² II/11).
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Edwin Edward B. Tylor: „Early History of Mankind“.
 Bei Morgan, S. 14: In Lubbock’s Pre-Historic Times, in Tylor’s Early History of Mankind, and in Peschel’s Races of Man, the particulars respecting this art, and the extent of its distribution, have been collected with remarkable breadth of research.
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geben alle 3 viel über pottery
Peschel: „Races of Men“

  Anscheinend hat Marx diesen Titel hier zu einem späteren Zeitpunkt hinzugefügt (siehe Faksimile von S. [1a]).
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Bachofen: Das Mutterrecht, Stuttgart 1861.

 Marx hatte diesen Titel bereits notiert bei der Lektüre des Buchs von M. Kovalevskij: Общинное землевладѣніе, причины, ходъ и послѣдствія его разложенія. Ч. 1. Москва 1879.
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L. H. Morgan „Systems of Consanguinity and Affinity of the Human Family“ (1871).

id. „The League of the Iroquois“ ditto: „The American Beaver and his Works“.

Rev. Hiram Bingham: „Sandwich Islands“. Hartford. 1847.

Dr. Bartlett: „Historical Sketch of the Missions etc in the Sandwich Islands“.

Ueber die Australian classes, organized upon sex, see: Rev. Lorimer Fison (English missionary in Australia): „Proceedings of the Amer. Ac. of Arts and Sciences“, for 1872, vol. VIII, p. 412; ditto McLennan: Primitive marriage (p. 118) u. Tylor: Early Hist. of Mankind.

 Bei Morgan, S. 153, Fn. 4: Mr. Francis Parkman, author of the brilliant series of works on the colonization of America
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Francis Parkman several works on the colonization of America.

Carver „Travels in North-America“. Phil. ed. 1796, p. 164 (über die „Dakotas“).

Schoolcraft: History of Indian Tribes.

Dall: „Alaska and its resources“.

Brett „Indian Tribes of Guiana“.

Aus:
E[dward] B[urnett] Tylor: Forschungen über die Urgeschichte der Menschheit und die Entwickelung der Civilisation. Leipzig [1866]. Aus dem Englischen von H. Müller. S. 117.
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 Vermutlich hat Marx den Titel entnommen aus dem Buch E. B. Tylor: Forschungen über die Urgeschichte der Menschheit und die Entwickelung der Civilisation. Leipzig 1866. Aus dem Englischen von H. Müller. S. 117, das er besaß. Sein Exemplar, mit zahlreichen Marginalien von ihm, ist überliefert (siehe MEGA² IV/32. Nr. 1339). Marx erwähnte Tylors „Forschungen“ in den Manuskripten zum zweiten Buch des „Kapital“ (siehe MEGA² II/11). Aus der gleichen Ausgabe entnahm Marx auch den obengenannten Titel des Buches von Goguet. (Sie Erl. dazu)
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Tylor „Mexico“
 Genauer: S. 156–161.
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(Ueber deren Irrigation p. 157–161).

Aus:
John B[udd] Phear: The Aryan village in India and Ceylon. London 1880.
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Grenier’s „Reports“ (Ceylon) for 1874: p. Note of Mr. Nell, Appendix to Part I II.

Ribeyro, Knox,  Korrigiert mit Rotstift von Engels.
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Valentyne Valentyn
(über Ceylon).

Growse: „Mathura“ (wegen der nonexistence der Kshatria caste).

Mr. La Touche“ recent: „Settlement Report of Ajmere and Mhairwarra“.

Aus:
H[enry] C[rossley] Irwin: The garden of India; or chapters on Oudh history and affairs. London 1880.
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 Dieses Memorandum ließ sich nicht ermitteln. Bei Irwin, S. 270: The local authorities having thus said their say, the running was taken up by Mr. (soon to become Sir William) Muir, who was then Secretary to the Government of India, in a very able “Memorandum on the Investigation into Tenant Rights in Oudh,” dated the 20th of October 1865. To this memorandum were added three appendices, on (1) the existing law and practice of Oudh courts in regard to cultivating tenures; (2) the result of the local inquiry into rights of non-proprietary cultivators; and (3) tenant-right in the N. W. Provinces and other parts of India.

Der zitierte Verweis auf das Memorandum von Muir ist in Marx’ Exemplar von Irwins Buch mit Blaustift unterstrichen (siehe MEGA² IV/32. Nr. 610 und Entstehung und Überlieferung zu Heft 1880/1881).
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Mr. Muir: (später Sir William Muir, damals Secretary to the Gvt of India): „Memorandum on the Investigation into tenant rights of Oudh“ (20 October 1865).

  Die Worte „Mr. Gubbins’ account of the Mutinies in Oudh …“ in Marx’ Exemplar von Irwins Buch sind mit Blaustift unterstrichen und am rechten Rand angekreuzt (siehe MEGA² IV/32. Nr. 610 und Entstehung und Überlieferung zu Heft 1880/1881).
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Gubbins: „Account of the Mutinies in Oudh“.

Aus:
Henry Sumner Maine: Lectures on the early history of institutions. London 1875.
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Forbes „Oriental Memoirs.“ (Darin II. 25 Lord Teignmouth’s description of „sitting dharna.“)

Aus:
Thomas Strange: Hindu law; Principally with Reference to Such Portions of it as Concern the Administration of Justice, in the King’s Courts, in India, London 1830.
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 Wahrscheinlich übernommen von S. 188 des vorliegenden Hefts, wo Marx seine Auszüge aus Maines „Lectures“ mit Exzerpten aus „Hindu law“ von Thomas Strange ergänzte, in denen auf „Post, p. 245“ verwiesen wird. Marx bezog sich offensichtlich nicht auf die Studien von Albert Hermann Post über „Die Geschlechtsgenossenschaft der Urzeit und die Entstehung der Ehe“ und über „Die Anfänge des Staats- und Rechtslebens“, die er schon notiert hatte (siehe oben).
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See Post for Hindu Law
.

 Diese Angaben hat Marx wahrscheinlich aus der Erinnerung hinzugefügt. Siehe Entstehung und Überlieferung zu Heft 1880/1881.

Mit dem ersten Titel meinte Marx offenbar [Gustav] Hugo: Lehrbuch des Naturrechts, als einer Philosophie des positiven Rechts. ([Gustav] Hugo: Lehrbuch eines civilistischen Cursus. Bd. 2.) Berlin 1799.
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See Hugo’s Naturrecht od. ähnlicher Titel (hab ihn vergessen)│Sybel: Dtsches Königthum.
|

Aus:
Lewis H[enry] Morgan: Ancient society or researches in the lines of human progress from savagery, through barbarism to civilization. London 1877.
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Lewis H. Morgan: „Ancient Society“. London 1877.

 Bezeichnung von Marx; nicht fortgesetzt.
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A)
Growth of intelligence through inventions and discoveries.

Part I. Ch. I.

I) Period of savagery.

1) Lower Status. Infancy of human race: lives in its original restricted habitat; subsists upon fruits and nuts; in this period commencement of articulate speech; ends with acquisition of fish subsistence and knowledge of use of fire. No tribes in this condition to be found in historical period of mankind.

2) Middle Status: commences mit fish subsistence and use of fire. Mankind spreads from original habitat over greater portion of earth’s surface. Such tribes existing still, f.i. the Australians and greater part of the Polynesians, when discovered.

3) Upper Status: Commences with invention of bow and arrow, ends with invention of art of pottery. In this state the Athapascan tribes of the Hudson’s Bay Territory, the tribes of the valley of Columbia u. certain coasts coast tribes of North and South America; with relation to the time of their discovery. [9, 10]

II) Period of Barbarism.

1) Lower Status begins with art of Pottery. Für den folgenden Status (middle) comes in Betracht the unequal endowment of the 2 hemispheres,  Zusatz von Marx.
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western and eastern
; aber to adopt equivalents. In Eastern hemisphere the domestication of animals, in the Western the cultivation of Maize and plants by irrigation, zugleich mit use of adobe-brick and stone in house building. Im lower status z. B. the Indian Tribes of the U. St. east of the Missouri river, and such tribes of Europe and Asia practising pottery, but were without domesticated animals.

2) Middle Status. Commences in Eastern sphere with domestication of animals, in the Western with cultivation by irrigation and the use of adobe-brick and stone in architecture; ends with the process of smelting iron ore. In this state f.i. the village Indians of New Mexico, Mexico, Central America, Peru u. tribes in the Eastern hemisphere possessing domestic animals, but without knowledge of iron. Ancient Britons belong hierhin; they knew the use of iron and other arts of life – far beyond the state of development of their domestic institutions – thanks to the vicinity of more advanced continental tribes.

3) Upper Status. Commences with the smelting of Iron Ore, use of iron tools etc, ends with the invention of a phonetic alphabet, and the use of writing in literary composition. In the upper Status of Barbarism the Grecian tribes of homeric ages, Italian tribes  Bei Morgan, S. 11: shortly before
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before
the founding of Rome
 Zusatz von Marx.
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(?)
, the  Bei Morgan, S. 11: Germanic
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German
tribes of Caesar’s time
. [10–12]

III. Period of Civilization.

Begins with phonetic alphabet and production of literary records; as equivalenthiperoglyphical writing upon stone. [12]

 Überschrift von Marx. Bei Morgan, S. 13: Since the use of pottery is less significant than that of domestic animals, of iron, or of a phonetic alphabet, employed to mark the commencement of subsequent ethnical periods, the reasons for its adoption should be stated. The manufacture of pottery presupposes village life, and considerable progress in the simple arts.
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Ueber Pottery specially to II Period. (1)

Flint and stone implements älter als pottery, found frequently in ancient repositories ohne pottery. Eh diese erfunden, commencement of village life, with some degree of control over subsistence, wooden vessels u. ustensils, finger weaving with filaments of bark, basket making u. bow u. arrow vor appearance of pottery. Diese nicht z. B. bei den Athapascans, the tribes of California u. of the village valley of Columbia. It was unknown in Polynesia (except the islands of the Tongans u. Fijians), in Australia, California u. the Hudsons’s Bay Territory. Tylor bemerkt, dass dieart of weaving unknown in most of the islands away from Asia“ u. „in most of the South Sea islands there was no knowledge of pottery.“ Flint and stone implements gave the canoe, wooden vessels and ustensils, and ultimately timber and plank in house architecture. Boiling of food – vor pottery – rudely accomplished in baskets coated with clay, and in ground cavities lined with skin, the boiling being effected with heated stones.

The village Indians – wie die Zuñians, the Azteks u. die Cholulans (in Period II, (2) state) manufactured pottery in large quantities, and in many forms of great excellence; the partially Village Indians of the U. St. in Period II (1) wie die Iroquois, Choctas, Cherokees made it in smaller quantities u. limited number of forms.

 Morgan (S. 13) zitiert den Namen Goguet, nach Tylor: Researches into the early history of mankind and the development of civilization. 2. ed. S. 273, aber mit falscher Schreibweise. Marx hatte Goguet und sein Werk „De l’origine des loix“ in seinen bibliographischen Notizen am Anfang des vorliegenden Hefts korrekt zitiert, offensichtlich direkt nach Tylor. Siehe die Sachanmerkung zu „Goguet: ‚De l’origine des lois‘“.
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Goquet Goguet – in last century – relates of Capt. Gonneville visiting the Southeast coast of South America in 1503, that he found „their household ustensils of wood, even their boiling pots, but plastered with |2 a kind of clay, a good finger thick, which prevented the fire from burning them“ u. nach Goquet Goguet daubed die wooden combustible vessels mit clay to protect them with from fire, till they found that clay alone would answer the purpose, and „thus the art of pottery came into the world.“

 E. T. Cox: Fifth annual report of the Geological Survey of Indiana, made during the year 1873. Indianapolis 1874.
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Nach Prof. E. T. Cox
of Indianapolis, the analyses of „ancient pottery“ „belonging to the mound-builders age, are composed of alluvial clay and sand, or a mixture of the former with pulverized fresh[-]water- shells.“[13–15]



 Überschrift von Marx. Siehe Morgan, S. 16.
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Development in different tribes u. families
.

Einige so geographisch isolirt, dass sie selbstständig die verschiednen Phasen durchlaufen; andre adulterated durch external influence. So Africa was u. is and an ethnical chaos of savagery u. barbarism; Australia u. Polynesia were in savagery, pure and simple.

The Indian family of America – unterscheidet sich dadurch v. jeder andern existirenden – stellten condition of mankind in three successive ethnical periods dar. When discovered, stellten sie jede der 3 conditions dar u. namentlich lower u. middle status of barbarism more elaborate u. complete als irgend andre portion of mankind. Die far Northern Indians u. some of the coast tribes of North and Southamerica were in the Upper Status of Savagery;

the partially Village Indians east of the Mississippi were in the Lower Status of Barbarism,

the village Indians of North and South America were in the Middle Status. [16]



Part I. Ch. II. Arts of subsistence.

Upon their (men’s) skill in this direction – arts of subsistence – the whole question of human supremacy on the earth depended. Mankind are the only beings who may be said to have gained an absolute control  Zusatz von Marx.
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(?!)
over the production of food. (19) the great epochs of human progress – identified, more or less directly, with the enlargement of the sources of subsistence. (l.c.)

1) natural subsistence upon fruits or roots on a restricted habitat. Primitive period; invention of language. Such kind of subsistence unterstellt a tropical or subtropical climate. Fruit and nutbearing forests under a tropical sun. (20) Were at least partially tree-livers  Übersetzung von Marx.
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(auf Bäumen lebend)
. (Lucret. de rerum natura lib. V) [l.c.]

2) fish subsistence; first artificial food, not fully available without cooking; fire first utilized for this purpose. – ⦗hunt for game too precarious ever to have formed an exclusive means of human support.⦘ Upon this species of food mankind became independent of climate and locality; by following the shores of the seas and lakes, and the courses of rivers could, while in the savage state, spread over the greater portion of the earth’s surface. Of the fact of these migrations … abundant evidence in the remains of flint and stone implements found upon all the continents. In Interval bis zur nächsten period important increase in the variety and amount of food; bread roots z. B. cooked in ground ovens; permanent addition of game through improved weapons, especially the bow and arrow; dies kam nach spear u. war club; gab the first deadly weapon for the hunt, appeared late in savagery; Bezeichnet (Bogen u. Pfeil) the upper status of savagery, was iron sword to barbarism, firearms to the period of civilization. bow u. arrow were unknown to the Polynesians in general, and to the Australians. (21) (22)

In Folge der precarious nature of all these sources of food, outside of the great fish areas, cannibalism became the resort of mankind. The ancient universality of this practice is being gradually demonstrated. (22)

3) Farinaceous food through cultivation.

Die cultivation of cereals scheint unbekannt gewesen zu sein im lower u. bis nah zum Ende des middle status of barbarism … in der Oestlichen Hemisphäre den tribes of Asia u. Europe. Dagegen im Lower Status of barbarism in der Westlichen Hemisphäre bekannt den American aborigines; sie hatten horticulture.

Beide Hemisphären ungleich endowed by nature: die Oestliche besass alle Thiere, save one, adapted to domestication u. a majority of cereals; the Western had one cereal (Maize) fit for cultivation, but that the best. Gave the advantage of condition in this period den American aborigines. Aber als die most advanced Eastern tribes, at the commencement of the middle period of barbarism, had domesticated animals giving meat and milk, without a knowledge of the cereals, ihre condition much superior to that of the American aborigines mit maize u. plants, aber ohne domesticated animals. Mit der domestication of animals scheint differentiation der Semitic u. Aryan families heraus aus der Masse der Barbaren begonnen zu haben.|

3

Dass die discovery u. cultivation of cereals durch die Aryan family später als domestication von animals beweisen common terms for these animals in the several dialects der Aryan language, and no common terms for cereals or cultivated plants. Ζέα (einziges dieser Worte), philologisch = Sanskrit yavas (bedeutet in Indian barley, in Greek „spelt“).

Horticulture preceded field culture, as the garden (hortos hortus) das field (ager); the latter implies boundaries, the former signifies directly an „inclosed field“.  Zusatz von Marx nach William Smith: A Latin-English dictionary, based upon the works of Forcellini and Freund. London [1855]. S. 508 (hortus) und S. 194 (cŏhors). Marx besaß das Wörterbuch (möglicherweise die Ausgabe von 1857). Es gehörte zu den Büchern, die ihm Wilhelm Wolff bei seinem Tod 1864 hinterlassen hatte (siehe MEGA² III/13. Br. 30.95; MEGA² IV/18. S. 13.29. Der Verbleib des Exemplars ist nicht bekannt.
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hortus an inclosed place for plants, hence a garden; from the same root cohors (auch cors, in einigen Mscpt. chors) a yard, a place walled round, a court, (auch cattle-yard); cf. gr. χόρτος, χορός; lat. hortus; german. garten, engl. garden, yard (ital. corte, french court cour, engl. court) (ital. giardino, sp. u. french jardin)[⦘]

Tillage muss aber älter sein als der inclosed garden; erst: tillage of patches of open alluvial land, 2) enclosed space of gardens, 3) field by means of the plow drawn by animal power. Ob die Cultur solcher plants wie pea, bean, turnip, parsnip, beet, squash  Zusatz von Marx.
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(Kürbisartige Frucht bei Massachusetts Indians)
u. melon, one or more of them, preceded the cultivation of the cereals, wissen wir nicht. Einige v. diesen haben common terms in Latin u. Greek, aber keines davon common term mit Sanskrit.

Horticulture im in  Zusatz von Marx.
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Östlicher Hemisphere
seems to have originated more in the necessities of the domestic animals than of in those of mankind. Commences in the Western hemisphere mit Maize; led in America to localization and village life; tended bes. under the village Indians to take the place of fish and game. Von cereals u. cultivated plants mankind obtained their first impression of the possibility of an abundance of food. – Mit farinaceous food verschwindet cannibalism; it survived in war, practised by war parties, unter den American aborigines in the Middle Status of barbarism, z. B. unter Iroquois u. Azteks; but the general practice had disappeared. (Wurde in savagery practicirt upon captured enemies u. in times of famine upon friends and kindred) [22–24]

4) Meat and Milk Subsistence. Absence of animals, adapted to domestication in Westlicher Hemisphäre ausser Llama. Die early Span. writers speak of a „dumb dog“ found domesticated in the West Indian Islands, ditto in Mexico u. Central America; sprechen auch von poultry u. turkeys on the American continent; the aborigines had domesticated the turkey u. die Nahuatlac tribes some species of wild fowl.

Diese Differenz u. die specific differences in the cereals beider Hemisphären producirten essential difference with that portion ihrer inhabitants who had attained to the Middle Status of Barbarism.

The domestication of animals provided a permanent meat and milk subsistence; tribes, die sie besassen, differentiated v. der mass of other barbarians. Den Village Indians ungünstig the limitation upon an essential species of food; haben inferior size of the brain verglichen mit den Indians in the Lower Status of Barbarism.

Vorzüge der Aryan u. Semitic families durch maintenance in numbers of domestic animals. Die Greeks milked their sheep as well as their cows u. goats. (Ilias IV, 433) Aryans to noch greater extent als Semites.

Domestication of animals – in östl. Hemisphäre – gradually introduced pastoral life, upon the plains of the Euphrates and of India u. den steppes of Asia; on the confines of one or the other of which the domestication of animals first accomplished.  Bei Morgan, S. 25: They were thus drawn to regions
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Sie kamen so von regions
, die, so weit entfernt die cradle lands der human race zu sein, were areas they would not have occupied as savages or barbarians in the Lower Status of barbarism, to whom forest areas were natural homes. Nachdem sie sich gewöhnt an pastoral life, unmöglich for either of these families to reenter the forest areas of Western Asia and of Europe with their flocks u. herds, without first learning to cultivate some of the cereals with which to subsist the latter at a distance from the grass plains. Sehr probable that the cultivation of the cereals originated in the necessities of the domestic animals, and in connection with these western migrations; and that the use of farinaceous food by these tribes was a consequence.

In der Western Hemisphere die aborigines advanced generally into the Lower Status of Barbarism, u. ein Theil davon in Middle Status ohne domestic animals, ausser Llama in Peru u. upon a single cereal, maize, mit den adjuncts of bean, squash u. tobacco u. in some areas cacao, cotton u. Pepper. „Maize“ from its growth in the hill – which favoured direct cultivation – from its useableness both green and ripe, from its abundant yield u. nutritive properties, was a richer endowment in aid of early human progress als all other cereals together; hence remarkable progress der American aborigines ohne domestic animals; the Peruvians produced bronze, which stands next to the process of smelting iron ore. [24–26]|

4

5) Unlimited subsistence through field agriculture.

The domestic animals supplemented human muscle with animal power, new factor of the highest value. Später production of iron gab Pflug mit an iron point u. a better spade u. axe. Mit diesen u. aus der früheren horticulture, came field agriculture u. damit zuerst unlimited subsistence. Der plow drawn by animal power; damit entsprang thoughts of reducing the forest and bringing wide fields into cultivation. (Lucret. v. 1369). Dense population in limited areas became possible. Vor field agriculture schwerlich dass ½ Million Menschen held together u. developed under one government in any part of the earth. Wo exceptions, they must have resulted from pastoral life on the plains od. von horticulture improved by irrigation, under peculiar u. exceptional condition. [26, 27]

 Zusammenfassung von Marx in eigenen Worten.
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Morgan theilt die Familienformationen (p. 27, 28) ein in:

1) Consanguine family: intermarriage of brothers and sisters in a group; darauf founded (u. dient jetzt als evidence davon) das Malayan system [of] consanguinity.

2) Punaluan family: name derived von der Hawaiian relationship of Punalua. Founded upon the intermarriage of several brothers to each other’s wives in a group; and of several sisters to each other’s husbands in a group. „Brother“ includes here the first, second, third, and even more remote cousins, all considered as brothers; u. „sister“ includes first, 2nd, 3d and even more remote female cousins, all sisters to each others other. Auf this form of family gegründet the Turanian u. Ganowánian systems of consanguinity. Beide Familienformen gehören zu period of savagery.

3) The Syndyasmian family:  Bei Morgan: The term is from συνδυάζω, to pair, συνδυασμός, a joining two together.

Die Zusätze von Marx sind übernommen von Val[entin] Christ[ian] Friedr[ich] Rost: Griechisch-Deutsches Wörterbuch für den Schul- und Handgebrauch. 4., gänzlich umgearb. Aufl. unter Mitw. von Karl Fr[iedrich] Ameis und Gustav Mühlmann. Bd. 1.2. Braunschweig 1852. Bd. 2. S. 474. Dort: συν-δυάζω, 1) paaren; Pass., sich paaren od. begatten, Plat., Plut. […] συνδυάς, […] gepaart Eur. συνδυασμός, […] Paarung, Verbindung Zweier, Plut. – Verweise auf Autoren, bei denen ein Wort in der betreffenden Bedeutung vorkommt, sind erst in die 4. Aufl. aufgenommen). Marx besaß Rosts „Griechisch-Deutsches Wörterbuch“ (siehe MEGA² III/13. Br. 30.96; MEGA² IV/18. S. 13.31). Der Verbleib des Exemplars ist nicht bekannt. Engels benutzt im „Ursprung“ für „Syndyasmian family“ durchgängig den Ausdruck „Paarungsfamilie“.
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von συνδυάζω ⦗(paaren (συνδυάς gepaart. Eur.) Passiv: sich paaren od. begatten. Plato, Plutarch⦘ ⦗συνδυασμός Paarung, Verbindung Zweier. Plutarch.
Founded upon the pairing of a male and a female under the form of marriage, aber ohne an exclusive cohabitation; ist germ der Monogamian family. Divorce or separation at the option of both husband u. wife. Diese Familienform gründet kein besondres Verwandtschaftssystem.

4) The Patriarchal family: founded upon the marriage of one man to several women. In Hebrew pastoral tribes the chiefs and principal men practised polygamy. Little influence on mankind for want of universality.

5) Monogamian family: marriage of one man with one woman, with an exclusive cohabitation; preeminently the family of civilized society, essentially modern. Auf diese Familienform gegründet an independent system of consanguinity.



Part III.

Ch. I. The ancient family.

 Zusatz von Marx.
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⦗Allerältestes: Hordenwesen mit promiscuity; no family; hier kann nur Mutterrecht irgendwelche Rolle spielen.⦘

 Zusammenfassung von Marx in eigenen Worten. Bei Morgan, S. 384: these forms [types of family] […] create three distinct systems of consanguinity, all of which still exist in living forms. Conversely, these systems are sufficient of themselves to prove the antecedent existence of the forms of the family and of marriage, with which they severally stand connected
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Die Verwandtschaftssysteme gebaut auf different types of family; ihrerseits wieder evidence für Existenz der letzteren, die sie überleben.
[384]

Das älteste system of consanguinity, bis jetzt entdeckt, found unter den Polynesians, wovon die Hawaiian als typical genommen; Morgan nennts das Malayan system. Hier alle consanguinei fallen unter die relationship: parent, child, grandparent, grandchild, brother u. sister; keine andre Blutverwandtschaft; ausserdem die marriage relationships. Dies system came in with the »consanguine« family form u. beweist deren alte Existenz; das System prevailed sehr allgemein unter den Polynesians, obgleich die family unter ihnen übergegangen aus consanguine form in punaluan. Letztere von ersterer nicht genug verschieden, um eine Modification des auf erstere gegründeten Verwandtschaftssystems zu produciren. Intermarriage zwischen brothers u. sisters noch nicht ganz verschwunden aus den Sandwichinseln, als amerik. Missionäre sich vor 50 Jahren dort etablirten. Muss auch in Asien geherrscht haben, weil es die Basis des dort noch existirenden Turanian system. [385, 386]

Turanian system war allgemein unter den nordamerik. aborigines u. hinreichend auch in Südamerika nachgewiesen, found in parts of Africa, wo jedoch unter dessen tribes Verwandtschaftssystem sich mehr dem Malayan nähert. Turanisches System noch prevailing in Südindien unter den Hindus der Dravidian language u., in modificirter Form in Nordindien unter den Hindus sprechend dialects der Gaura language; ebenso in Australien in partially developed form. In den principal tribes der Turanian u. Ganowánian families producirt durch punaluan marriage in the group u. die organization into gentes, tending to repress consanguine marriages, by |5 prohibition of intermarriage in the gens, wodurch [es] own brothers u. sisters von marriage relation ausschloss. [386]

The Turanian system recognizes all the relationships known under the Aryan system, aber auch diesem unbekannte. In familiar u. formal salutation the people address each other by the term of relationship, nie by the personal name; wo keine relationship exists, durch „my friend“. [387]

Bei Entdeckung der American aborigines war die family aus der punaluan in ihre syndasmian syndyasmian form übergegangen; so dass die relationships recognized by the system of consanguinity in zahlreichen Fällen nicht die waren die wirklich in der syndasmian syndyasmian family existirten; aber ebenso hatte Malayan system of consanguinity überdauert den Uebergang der consanguine family in die Punaluan. Gradeso überdauerte Turanian system of consang. den Uebergang der punaluan family in die syndasmian syndyasmian. Die Familienform  Bei Morgan, S. 388: advances faster of necessity
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variirt schneller
als systems of consanguinity which follow to record the family relationships.  Bei Morgan, S. 388: It required an institution as great as the gentile organization
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Die organization in gentes war nöthig
to change the Malayan system in das Turanian; property in the concrete, with its rights of ownership u. inheritance, war nöthig, zusammen mit der monogamian family which it created, to overthrow the Turanian system of consanguinity and substitute the Aryan. [387, 388]

The Semitic, Aryan, od. Uralian system of consanguinity – defining the relationships in the monogamian family – was nicht based upon the Turanian system, wie dies war upon the Malayan, sondern superseded it among civilized nations.

Von den 5 family forms haben 4 existed in der historic period; nur die consanguine disappeared; can aber be deduced v. dem Malayan system of consanguinity. [388]

Marriage between single pairs had existed from the older period of barbarism, under the form of pairing during the pleasure of the parties; wurde stabiler mit advance of society, mit  Bei Morgan, S. 389: progress of inventions and discoveries
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progress durch inventions and discoveries
into higher successive conditions. Man began to exact fidelity from the wife, under savage penalties, but he claimed exemption for himself. So unter den Homeric Greeks. Fortschritt v. Homerisch. Zeitalter bis dem von Pericles, with its gradual settlement into a defined institution.  Bei Morgan, S. 390: The modern family is an unquestionable improvement upon that of the Greeks and Romans; because woman has gained immensely in social position.
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So moderne Familie höher als griech. u. röm.
;  Zusammenfassung von Marx. Bei Morgan, S. 388: We have a record of the monogamian family, running back nearly three thousand years, during which, it may be claimed there has been a gradual but continuous improvement in its character. […] the stupendous conjugal system […] fastened itself upon mankind in the infancy of their existence, and followed them down to civilization; although steadily losing ground with the progressive improvement of society. The ratio of human progress may be measured to some extent by the degree of the reduction of this system through the moral elements of society arrayed against it. Each successive form of the family and of marriage is a significant registration of this reduction. After it was reduced to zero, and not until then, was the monogamian family possible. […] the creation of five successive forms of the family, each differing from the other, and belonging to conditions of society entirely dissimilar
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Geschichte durchgemacht in histor. Zeit von 3000 Jahren durch die monogamische Familie u. Ehe. Der Fortschritt des alten complicirten »conjugal« system besteht in seiner successive reduction, bis reduced to zero in der monogamian family. Jeder der 5 family types belongs to conditions of society entirely dissimilar
. Das Turanian system of consanguinity, which records the relationships in punaluan family, blieb wesentlich unverändert bis zur Etablirung der monogamian family, when it became almost totally untrue to the nature of descents, and even a scandal upon monogamy. z. B. unter dem Malayan system nennt ein Mann seines Bruders Sohn seinen Sohn, weil seines Bruders Frau auch seine Frau ist; u. seiner Schwester Sohn ist auch sein Sohn, weil seine Schwester auch seine Frau ist. Unter dem Turanian system ist seines Bruder’s Sohn immer noch sein Sohn, aus demselben Grund, aber seiner Schwester Sohn ist jetzt sein Neffe, weil under der gentile organization seine Schwester aufgehört hat, seine Frau zu sein. Unter den Iroquois, wo die family syndasmian syndyasmian ist, nennt ein Mann seines Bruder’s Sohn seinen Sohn, obgleich seines Bruder’s Frau aufgehört hat, seine Frau zu sein u. so selbe Incongruenz mit grosser Anzahl andrer relationships, die der existing form of marriage aufgehört haben zu entsprechen. Das System hat die Gebräuche überlebt, worin es entsprang u. erhält sich fort unter ihnen, obgleich in the main untrue, für descents as they now exist. Monogamy kam auf to assure the paternity of children and the legitimacy of heirs. Turanian system konnte durch keine Reform ihm adaptirt werden; stand in schreiendem Gegensatz zur Monogamie; das System ward dropped; aber die descriptive method, stets employed durch die Turanian tribes when they wished to make a given relationship specific, wurde substituted. They fell back upon the bare facts of consanguinity u. described the relationship of each person by a combination of the primary terms; sagten so: Bruder’s Sohn, Bruder’s grandson; father’s brother; father’s brother’s son; each phrase described a person, leaving the relationship a matter of implication; so bei den arischen Nationen, in der ältesten Form bei den Griechischen, latein., sanskritischen, celtischen,  Bei Morgan, S. 392: and also in the Semitic, as witness the Hebrew Scripture genealogies
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semitischen tribes. (Old testament, Genealogies)
Traces des Turanian system unter den arischen u. semit. nations down to the historical period, aber essentially uprooted, Descriptive |6 substituted in its place. [389–392]

Jedes der systems of consanguinity expresses the actual relationships existing in the family at the time of its establishment. Die relations v. Mutter u. Kind, Bruder u. Schwester, Grossmutter u. grandchild were stets versicherbar (seit Etablirung irgend einer Form von family), aber nicht die von Vater u. Kind, Grossvater u. grandchild; letzteres nur  Bemerkung von Marx.
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(mindestens officiell?)
versicherbar in Monogamie. [392, 393]

Die systems of consanguinity sind classificatory oder aber descriptive. Unter dem ersten System consanguinei »classified« into categories unabhängig von ihrer Nähe od. Entfernung in degree von Ego; der selbe term of relationship applied to all the persons in the same category. z. B. meine eignen Brüder u. die Söhne von den Brüdern meines Vaters sind alle gleichmässig meine Brüder; meine eignen Schwestern u. die Töchter der Schwestern meiner Mutter sind alle gleichmässig meine Schwestern; such is the classification in Malayan u. Turanian systems. Im descriptiven System dagegen die consanguinei bezeichnet durch die primary terms of relationship od. combination dieser terms, wodurch die relationship jeder Person specific gemacht. So im Aryan, Semitic; od. Uralian system, which came in with monogamy; später introducirt a small amount of classification durch inventions of common terms, aber die earliest form of the system – the Erse u. Scandinavian typical, purely descriptive. Der radicale Unterschied der Systeme resulted von plural marriages in the group in one case, from single marriages between single pairs in the other. [394]

Relationships zweifach: 1) by consanguinity or blood; diese selbst zweifach, a) lineal u. b) collateral; a) lineal ist die connection unter Persons wovon eine von der andern abstammt; b) collateral ist sie, wo persons descend von common ancestors, aber nicht von einander. 2) by affinity or marriage; marriage relationships exist by custom. Wo marriage between single pairs, each person the Ego from whom the degree of relationship of each person is reckoned u. to whom it returns. His position in the lineal line, which line is vertical. Upon it, above and below him, ancestors and descendants in direct series from father to son; these persons together constitute the right lineal male line. Out of this trunk line emerge the several collateral lines, male and female, numbered outwardly;  Zusammenfassung von Marx.
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in einfachster Form with one brother and one sister etc
:

1st collateral line: male, my brother and his descendants; female: my sister and her descendants.
2nd coll. line: male, my father’s brother and his descendants; female: my father’s sister u. her descendants.
male, my mother’s brother and his descendants;

female:

my mother’s sister und her descendants.
3d coll. line: on the father’s side: male: my grandfather’s brother and his descendants; female: my grand father’s sister and her descendants.
on the mother’s side: my grandmother’s brother and his descendants; female: my grandmother’s sister and her descendants.
4th coll. line: great grandfather’s brother and sister  and their respective descendants.
great grandmother’s brother and sister  and … ditto … ditto.
5th coll. line: great-great grandfather’s brother and sister and their respective descendants.
great-great-grandmothers brother and sister  and … ditto … ditto.

Habe ich several brothers u. sisters, so constituiren sie mit ihren descendants so many independent lines, aber zusammen bilden sie my first collateral line in 2 branches, a male and a female etc etc. [394–396]

 Bei Morgan, S. 396/397: it will be seen at once that a method of arrangement and of description which […] rendered the whole intelligible would be no ordinary achievement. This task was perfectly accomplished by the Roman civilians […] and is so entirely simple as to elicit admiration.
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Dies Zeug einfach summirt durch die Roman civilians
Pandects lib. XXXVIII, title X. De gradibus, et adfinibus et nominibus eorum; u. Institutes of Justinian lib. III, title V VI: De gradibus cognationis⦘; adoptirt durch principal European nations.

 Bei Morgan, S. 397: These terms finally appeared among the Romans in
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Römer geben bes. Namen:

patruus (for uncle on father’s side) u. amita (for aunt on father’s side);

avunculus (uncle on mothers mother’s side) u. matertera (for aunt on mother’s side)

avus, grandfather, giebt avunculus (a little grandfather); Matertera soll herkommen v. mater u. altera = another mother. – Die Erse, Scandinavian u. Slavonic haben nicht diese röm. method of description angenommen.

The 2 radical forms – the classificatory u. the descriptive [–] yield nearly the exact line of demarcation between the barbarous u. civilized nations. [396, 397]

Powerful influences existed to perpetuate the systems of consanguinity after the conditions under which each originated had been modified or had altogether disappeared. [398]|

7

In so complicated system wie das Turanian entwickelte sich natürlich divergence in minor particulars. Das system of consanguinity des Tamil people of South India u. das der Seneca-Iroquois, of New York, sind noch identisch through 200 relationships; a modified form of the system – standing alone – that of the Hindi, Bengali, Marâthi u. other people of North India, ist combination der Aryan u. Turanian systems. A civilized people, the Brahmins, coalesced with a barbarous stock, lost their language in the new vernaculars named, which retain the grammatical structure of the aboriginal speech, wozu das Sanskrit 90% of its vocables gab. Ihre 2 systems of consanguinity came into collision, the one founded on monogamy or syndyasmy u. the other upon plural marriages in the group. [398, 399]

Unter den Indian tribes von North America the family syndyasmian; aber lebten generally in joint-tenement houses u. practised communism within the household. Je mehr wir niedersteigen in der direction der punaluan u. consanguine families, the household group becomes larger, with more persons crowded together in the same apartment. The coast tribes in Venezuela, wo die family punaluan gewesen zu sein scheint, are represented by the Spanish discoverers (Herrera’s: History of America) as living in bell-shaped houses, each containing 160 persons. Husbands u. wives lived together in a group in the same house. [399]

Part III. Ch. II. The Consanguine Family.

 Bei Morgan, S. 401: As first and most ancient form of the institution, it has ceased to exist even among the lowest tribes of savages. […] There are tribes of savages […] seemingly not far removed from the primitive state; but they have advanced beyond the condition the consanguine family implies.
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Existirt in primitivster Form nicht mehr selbst unter lowest savages
. Sie ist aber bewiesen durch a system of consanguinity and affinity welches für zahllose Jahrhunderte überlebt hat the marriage customs in which it originated: das Malayan system; it defines the relationships wie sie nur in einer consanguine family existiren konnten; es besitzt an antiquity of unknown duration; die inhabitants of Polynesia included in this system, obgleich die eigentlichen Malays es in einigen Punkten modificirt haben. Hawaiian u. Rotuman forms typical; te the simplest, therefore the oldest. Alle consanguinei, near u. remote, classified under 5 categories:

1st category: Ego, my brothers u. sisters, my first, second and more remote male and female cousins, are all without distinction my brothers and sisters. (word cousin here used in our sense, the relationship being unknown in Polynesia.[)]
2t category: My father and mother, together with their brothers and sisters, and their first, second, and more remote cousins are all my parents.
3t category: My grandfathers and grandmothers, on father’s side and mother’s side, with their brothers and sisters, and their several cousins, are my grandparents.
4t category: my sons and daughters, with their several cousins, are all my children.
5t category: my grandsons and granddaughters, with their several cousins, are all my grandchildren.
Ferner: all the individuals of the same grade or category are brothers and sisters to each other.

The 5 categories or grades in the Malayan system appears appear auch in den „Nine Grades of relations“ of the Chinese mit 2 additional ancestors u. 2 additional descendants. [401–404]

The wives of my several brothers, own and collateral, are my wives as well as theirs; für die female, the husbands of her several sisters, own and collateral, are also her husbands. [406]

The several collateral lines are brought into and merged in the lineal line, ascending as well as descending; so that the ancestors and descendants of my collateral brothers and sisters become mine as well as theirs.

All the members of each grade are reduced to the same level in their relationships, without regard to nearness or remoteness in numerical degrees. Auch bei andren Polynesian tribes – ausser Hawaians u. Rotumans – dies System; so unter den Marquesas Islanders u. den Maoris of New Zealand; den Samoans, Kusaiens, King’s Mill Islanders of Micronesia; zweifellos in every inhabitant inhabited island of Pacific except where it verges upon the Turanian. [407–408]

System based auf: intermarriage zwischen own brothers and sisters, and gradually enfolding the collateral brothers and sisters as the range of the conjugal system widened. In dieser consanguine family the husbands lived in polygyny u. die wives in polyandry. It would be difficult to show any other possible beginning of the family in the primitive period. All traces of it had not disappeared among the Hawaiians at the epoch of their discovery –

The system also founded upon the intermarriage of own and collateral brothers and sisters in a group. [408, 409]|

8

 Zusammenfassung von Marx in eigenen Worten. Bei Morgan, S. 410/411: All the children of my several brothers, myself a male, are my sons and daughters. Reason: Speaking as a Hawaiian, all the wives of my several brothers are my wives as well as theirs. As it would be impossible for me to distinguish my own children from those of my brothers, if I call any one my child, I must call them all my children. One is as likely to be mine as another. […] All the children of my several sisters, myself a female, are my sons and daughters. Reason: The husbands of my sisters are my husbands as well as theirs. This difference, however, exists: I can distinguish my own children from those of my sisters, to the latter of whom I am a step-mother. But since this relationship is not discriminated, they fall into the category of my sons and daughters. Otherwise they would fall without the system. […] The children can distinguish their own mothers, but not their fathers […] The children of these brothers and sisters are also brothers and sisters to each other; the children of the latter are brothers and sisters again, and this relationship continues downward among their descendants indefinitely.
Schließen
The husband in diesem Sinn weiss nicht ob dies od. jenes Kind sein eignes Fabrikat; es ist sein Kind, weil das Kind einer seiner Frauen, die er mit seinen brothers, own od. collateral gemein hat. Die Frau kann dagegen ihre Kinder von denen ihrer sisters unterscheiden; sie wäre ihre step-mother; diese »Categorie« existirt aber nicht im System; ihrer Schwestern Kinder also ihre Kinder. Die Kinder dieser gemeinsamen Eltern könnten sich zwar von mütterlicher Seite unterscheiden, aber nicht von väterlicher: sind daher alle Geschwister.
[410, 411]

The marriage relationship extended wherever the relationship of brother and sister was recognized to exist; each brother having as many wives as he had sisters, own or collateral, and each sister as many husbands as she had brothers, own or collateral. [411]

Wherever the relationship of wife is found in the collateral line, that of husband must be recognized in the lineal, and vice versa.

Unter den Kaffern v. Südafrika die wives meiner  Zusatz von Marx.
Schließen
Cousins
father’s brother[’s] son, father’s sister’s son, mother’s brother[’s] son, mother’s sisters sister’s son – are alike my wifes wives. [412]

The larger the group recognizing the marriage relation, the less the evil of close interbreeding. [413]

1820 the American missions established in the Sandwich islands, were chocked shocked at the sexual relations; they fanden dort die punaluan family, with own sisters and brothers not entirely excluded, the males living in polygyny, the females in polyandry; the people had not attained the organization in gentes. Unwahrscheinlich dass die actual family among the Hawaiians was as large as the group united in the marriage relation. Necessity would compel its subdivision into smaller groups for the procurement of subsistence, and for mutual protection; individuals passed wahrscheinlich at pleasure from one of these subdivisions into another in the punaluan as well as consanguine families, giving rise to that apparent desertion by husbands and wives of each other and by parents of their children, mentioned by Rev. Hiram Bingham. (Missionair, amerik., in Sandwich islands) Communism in living must have prevailed both in the consanguine and in the punaluan family als requirement of their condition. It still prevails generally among savage and barbarous tribes. ⦗each smaller family would be a miniature of the group.⦘ [414–416]

Ueber Chinese System of 9 Grades see »Systems of consanguinity« etc p. 415, p. 432. [416, 417]

In Plato’s Timaeus (Ch. II) all consanguinei in the Ideal Republic to fall into 5 categories, in which the women were to be in common as wives and the children in common as to parents.   Zusatz von Marx. Gemeint ist hier Plato: Opera quae feruntur omnia. Recognoverunt Io. Georgius Baiterus, Io. Caspar Orellius, Aug. Guilielmus Winckelmannus. Accedunt integra varietas lectionis Stephanianae, Bekkerianae, Stallbaumianae, scholia et nominum index. Turici 1839. S. 705 l. Sp. (Timaeus, 18c–d). In seinem Ökonomischen Manuskript 1861–1863 hatte Marx Platos zweites Buch der „Republik“ nach der Ausgabe von Baiter, Orelli etc (Zürich 1839) zitiert (MEGA² II/3.1. S. 256–258). Siehe auch den ersten Band des „Kapital“ (MEGA² II/5. S. 299). Schon im Verzeichnis seiner Bücher aus dem Jahr 1844 in seinem Notizbuch aus den Jahren 1844 bis 1847 wird „Plato opera omnia 2 t.“ erwähnt (MEGA² IV/3. S. 6.9). Es könnte sich entweder um diese Ausgabe oder um eine andere im Verlag Meyer & Zeller in Zürich erschienene Ausgabe, die die einzelnen Werke in gesonderten (auch gesondert paginierten) Bänden brachte (Plato: Opera omnia. Recognoverunt Io. Georgius Baiterus, Io. Caspar Orellius, Aug. Guil. Winckelmannus. Editio altera. Vol. 1–21. Turici 1839–1841). Marx’ Exemplare sind nicht überliefert. Sie gehörten wahrscheinlich zu den gestohlenen Werken, über die Marx Engels am 27. Februar 1861 schrieb: „Die Kölner haben schön mit meiner Bibliothek gewirthschaftet. Den ganzen Fourrier gestohlen, dtto Göthe, dtto Herder, dtto Voltaire u. was mir das Scheußlichste, die ‚Economistes du 18e siècle‘ (ganz neu, kosteten mir an 500 fcs) u. viele Bände der griechischen Klassiker, viele einzelne Bände v. andren Werken.“ (MEGA III/11. S. 380.)
Schließen
(sieh meine Ausgabe p. 705, erste Columne)
Hier dieselben 5 primary grades of relations, Plato bekannt mit hellenischen u. pelasgischen traditions, reaching back in the region of barbarism etc. Seine grades exact die der Hawaiians. [417]

Der state of society indicated by the consanguine family points to an anterior condition of promiscuous intercourse  Klammern und Ausrufezeichen von Marx.
Schließen
(in der Horde!)
), trotz Darwin. (See Descent of Man II, 360) Sobald die Horde would break up into smaller groups for subsistence, it would fall von promiscuity into consanguine families, welches die first »organized form of society«. [417, 418]

Part III. Ch. III. The Punaluan family.

Existed in Europe, Asia, America within the historical period, in Polynesia within the present century; widely prevailing in the Status of Savagery, remained in some instances among tribes advanced into the Lower Status of barbarism, u. im case der Britons, among tribes im Middle Status of Barbarism.

Geht hervor aus consanguine family durch gradual exclusion of own brothers and sisters from the marriage relation … Commencing in isolated cases, introduced partially at first, then becoming general, and finally universal among the advancing tribes, still in savagery … illustrates the operation of the principle of natural selection. [424, 425]

In dem Australian class system  Zusatz von Marx.
Schließen
(sieh später)
evident, that their primary object the exclusion of own brothers and sisters from the marriage relation, während  Verweis von Marx auf S. 425, Fn. 1 des Buchs von Morgan.
Schließen
(see the descents of these classes p. 425)
the collateral brothers and sisters were retained in that relation. In der Australian punaluan group wie in der Hawaiian the brotherhood of the husbands formed the basis of the marriage relation of one group, and the sisterhood of the wives of the other … the Australian organization into classes upon sex – which gave birth to the punaluan group, which contained the germ of the gens – prevailed wahrscheinlich unter allen tribes of mankind who afterwards fell under the gentile organization. Vor der organization into gentes, which permanently excluded brothers and sisters from the marriage relation by an organic law, letztere noch frequently involved in Punaluan family, wie bei den Hawaiians, die keine organization in gentes noch das Turanian system of consanguinity hatten. [425, 426]

1) Punaluan family:

1860 said Judge Lorin Andrews, of Honolulu, in a letter accompanying a schedule of the Hawaiian system of consanguinity: „the relationship of pŭnalŭa is rather amphibious. It |9 arose from the fact that 2 or more brothers with their wives, or two or more sisters with their husbands, were inclined to possess each other in common; but the modern use of the word is that of dear friend, or intimate companion.“ What Judge Andrews says they were inclined to do, and which may then have been a declining practice, their system of consanguinity proves to have been once universal among them.  Zusatz von Marx.
Schließen
Weiter bezeugt durch die Missionäre. (see p. 427, 428)
So schrieb Rev. Artemus Bishop, lately deceased, one of the oldest missionaries in these islands, der dem Morgan ebenfalls 1860 a similar schedule schickte: „This confusion of relationships is the result of the ancient custom among relatives of the living together of husbands and wives in common.“ Then punaluan family group consists of: one group: several brothers and their wives; other group: several sisters with their husbands; jede group including the children of the marriages. [427, 428]

Bei den Hawaiians a man calls his wife’s sister his wife; all the sisters of his wife, own as well as collateral, are also his wives. But the husband of his wife’s sister he calls pŭnalŭa, i.e. his intimate companion; and all the husbands of the several sisters of his wife the same. They were jointly intermarried in the group. Diese husbands waren probably keine Brüder, sonst would the blood relationship have prevailed über die affineal; but their wives were sisters, own and collateral; in such case the sisterhood of the wives the basis upon which the group was formed, and the husbands stood to each other in the relation of pŭnalŭa.

Die andre group rests upon the brotherhood of the husbands, and a woman calls her husband’s brother her husband; alle Brüder ihres Mannes, own and collateral, waren auch ihre husbands; but the wife of her husbands husband’s brother stands to her in the relationship of pŭnalŭa. Diese wives  Bei Morgan: probably
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generally
nicht sisters, obgleich zweifellos exceptions in beiden Gruppen  Zusatz von Marx.
Schließen
⦗so dass auch Brüder Schwestern u. Schwestern Brüder in common hatten⦘
. Alle diese wives zu einander in relationship of pŭnalŭa. [428]

Brothers ceased to marry their own sisters, and after the gentile organization had worked upon society its complete results, their collateral sisters as well. But in the interval they shared their remaining wives in common. In like manner, sisters ceased marrying their own brothers, and after a long period of time, their collateral brothers; but they shared their remaining husbands in common.

Marriages in pŭnalŭan groups explain the relationships of the Turanian system of consanguinity. Giebt nun verschiedne Beispiele vom Ueberleben über savagery hinaus of punaluan custom;  Zehn Männer, in anderen Fällen zwölf, haben gemeinsam Frauen, und zwar zumeist Brüder mit Brüdern und Väter mit ihren Söhnen. (Übers. Otto Schönberger.)
Schließen
Caesar De bell. gall. über Britons in the Middle Period of Barbarism; Caesar sagt: »Uxores habent deni duodenique inter se communes, et maxime fratres cum fratribus parentesque cum liberis.«
Barbarian mothers have not 10–12 sons, die als Brüder sich gemeinschaftliche Weiber halten könnten; aber das Turanian system of consanguinity liefert viele Brüder, weil male cousins, near and remote, fall in this category with Ego.  Zusammenfassung von Marx in eigenen Worten. Bei Morgan, S. 430: The correlative group which this presupposes, where several sisters shared their husbands in common, is not suggested directly by Caesar; but it probably existed as the complement of the first. Something beyond the first he noticed, namely, that parents, with their children, shared their wives in common. It is not unlikely that these wives were sisters.
Schließen
Das »parentesque cum liberis« wahrscheinlich falsche Auffassung des Cäsar for several sisters sharing their husbands.
Herodot über Massagetae in Middle Status of Barbarism. (l. I, c. 216)  Zwar führt jeder ein Weib heim, doch herrscht trotzdem Weibergemeinschaft. (Übers. August Horneffer.)
Schließen
Herodots Phrase: »γυναῖκα μὲν γαμεέι γαμέει ἕκαστος, ταύτῃσι δὲ ἐπίκοινα χρέονται χρέωνται«
scheint auf Beginn der syndasmian syndyasmian family hinzudeuten; jeder husband paired with one wife, who thus became his principal wife, but within the limits of the group husbands and wives continued in common. Die Massagetae, obgleich ignorant of iron, fought on horseback armed with battleaxes of copper and with copper-pointed spears, and and manufactured and used the wagon. (ἅμαξα) Also nicht promiscuity supposable. Herodot, l. IV, c. 104, sagt auch v. den Agathyrsi:  Sie leben in Weibergemeinschaft, damit alle miteinander verwandt und verschwistert seien und kein Neid und keine Zwietracht aufkommen könnten. (Übers. August Horneffer.)
Schließen
»ἐπίκοινον δὲ τῶν γυναικῶν τὴν μῖξιν ποιεῦνται, ἵνα κασίγνητοί τε ἀλλήλων ἔωσι καὶ οἰκήϊοι ἐόντες πάντες μήτε φθόνῳ μήτ’ ἔχθεϊ χρέωνται ἐς ἀλλήλους«
. Punaluan marriage in the group erklärt besser diese u. similar usages in other tribes mentioned by Herodotus, than polygamy or general promiscuity. [429–431]

Herrera, Hist. of America, sagt: (das gilt v. Zeit der first navigators who visited the coast tribes of Venezuela) „They observe no law or rule in matrimony, but took as many wives as they would, and they as many husbands, quitting one another at pleasure, without reckoning any wrong done on any part. There was no such thing as jealousy among them, all living as best pleased them, without taking offence at one another … the houses they dwelt in were common to all, and so spacious that they contained 160 persons, strongly built, though covered with palmtree leaves, and shaped like a bell.“|

10

These tribes used earthen vessels, were in Lower State of Barbarism. ⦗derselbe Herrera, speaking of the coast tribes of Brazil: „they live in bohios, or large thatched cottages, of which there are about 8 in every village, full of people, with their nests or hammocks to lye in … they live in a beastly manner, without any regard to justice or decency.“[⦘] [431]

Bei der Entdeckung of North America in its several parts, the punaluan family seems to have entirely disappeared; syndasmyan syndyasmian form of family, aber environed with the remains of the ancient conjugal system. Eine custom z. B. noch jetzt anerkannt in mindestens 40 North American Indian tribes. Heirathete ein Mann die älteste Tochter einer family, so durch custom entitled to all her sisters as wives when they attained the marriageable age. Dies Recht selten enforced wegen der Schwierigkeit several families to maintain, obgleich Polygmy Polygamy allgemein anerkannt as privilege of the males. Früher – pŭnalŭa – own sisters went into the marriage relation on the basis of sisterhood; nach Absterben der pŭnalŭan family the right remained with the husband of the eldest sister to become the husband of all her sisters, if he chose. Dies genuine  Bei Morgan, S. 432: survival
Schließen
revival
of the ancient pŭnalŭan custom. [432]

2) Origin of the Organization into gentes.

Partial development of gentes in the Status of savagery, complete development in the Lower Status of barbarism. Germ of gentes found in the Australian classes wie in der Hawaiian punaluan group. The gentes are also found among the Australians, based upon the classes, with the apparent manner of their organization out of them … Its (the gentile organization’s) birth must be sought in pre-existing elements of society, and its maturity would be expected to occur long after its origination.

Two of the fundamental rules of the gens in its archaic form found in the Australian classes, the prohibition of intermarriage between brothers and sisters, and descent in the  Bei Morgan, S. 433: female
Schließen
family
line
… und when gens appeared, the children are found in the gens of their mothers. Natural adaptation of the classes to give birth to the gens sufficiently obvious  Bei Morgan, S. 433: to suggest the probability that it actually so occurred. Moreover, this probability is strengthen by the fact that the gens is here found in connection with an antecedent and more archaic organization, which was still the unit of a social system, a place belonging of right to the gens.
Schließen
… Und in Australien the fact: gens here found (actually) in connection with an antecedent and more archaic organization, die still the unit of a social system, Platz später durch die gens eingenommen.
[433]

Germ of gens ebenso found in Hawaiian punaluan group, aber confined to the female branch of the custom, wo several sisters, own and collateral, shared their husbands in common. Diese Schwestern, mit ihren Kindern u. descendants through females, liefern the exact membership of a gens of the archaic type. Descent hier nothwendig traced durch females, da paternity der children nicht mit certainty ascertainable. Sobald diese specifische Form der Ehe in the group etablirte Institution, the foundation for a gens existed. Die Hawaiians did not turn this natural punaluan group into a gens, d.h. in eine Organisation beschränkt auf diese Mütter, Kinder u. Abkommen in der weiblichen Linie. Aber zu einer analogen Gruppe, resting upon the sisterhood of the mothers, or to the similar Australian group, resting upon the same principle of union, the origin of the gens must be ascribed. It took this group as it found it, and organized certain of its members, with certain of their posterity, into a gens on the basis of kin. [433, 434]

The gens sprang up in a family, which consisted of a group of persons coincident substantially with the membership of a gens.

Sobald sich die gens voll entwickelt u. ihren full influence on society ausübte »wives became scarce in place of their former abundance«, weil die gens tended »to contract the size of the punaluan group, and finally to overthrow it.« Die syndyasmische Familie wurde gradually produced within the punaluan, nachdem die gentile organization became predominant over ancient society. Als die syndyasmische Familie zu erscheinen begann u. die punaluan groups zu verschwinden, wurden wives sought by purchase and capture.  Bei Morgan, S. 435: it is a plain inference that the gentile organization was the sufficient cause of the final overthrow of the punaluan family […] While it originated in the punaluan group, as we must suppose, it nevertheless carried society beyond and above its plane.
Schließen
Originating in the punaluan group, sprengte die gentile organization diese ihre Geburtsstätte
. [434, 435]

3) The Turanian or Ganowanian Ganowánian System of Consanguinity.

This system u. die gentile organization, when in its archaic form, werden gewöhnlich zusammen gefunden. Die family active principle, steht nie still, passes von a lower form into a higher one. Systems of consanguinity sind dagegen passiv; recording the progress made by the family at long intervals apart, and only changing radically when the family has radically changed. [435]  Kommentar von Marx. Von Engels zitiert im „Ursprung“ (MEGA² I/29. S. 21/22).
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Ebenso verhält es sich mit politischen, religiösen, juristischen, philosophischen Systemen überhaupt.⦘
|

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Das Turanian system of consanguinity drückt aus die actual relationships wie sie in der Punaluan family existiren; es beweist seinerseits die  Bei Morgan, S. 436: existence
Schließen
Praeexistenz
dieser Familie. Das System geht herab bis auf unsre Zeit in Asien u. America, nachdem die Familienform, hence Eheform, aus der es entsprang, verschwunden u. die punaluan family ersetzt durch die syndyasmische. Die substantiell identischen Formen des Verwandtschaftssystems der Seneca-Iroquois (used as typical für die Ganowanian Ganowánian tribes of America) u. des Tamil people v. Südindien (als typical f. die Turanian tribes of Asia) haben gemein über 200 relationships of the same person.  Verweis von Marx auf die „Comparative Table of the System of Relationship of the Seneca-Iroquois Indians of New York, and of the People of South-India speaking the Tamil Dialekt of the Drâvidian Language“ bei Morgan, S. 447–452.
Schließen
(sieh die Tabellen p. 447 sq.)
Natürlich einige, aber nicht substantielle diversities der Systems bei different tribes u. nations. All alike salute by kin; unter den Tamil people, when the person addressed is younger than the speaker, the term of relationship must be used; when older, salute by kin or by the personal name; bei den American aborigines, the address must always be by the term of relationship. Dies System was also the means by which each individual in the ancient gentes was able to trace his connection with every member of his gens, bis monogamy das Turanian system niederwarf. [435, 436]

Bei den Seneca-Iroquois the relationships of Grandfather (Hoc’-sote), grandmother (Oc’-sote), grandson (Ha-yä’-da) u. granddaughter (Ka-yä’-da) sind die most remote recognized in aufsteigender u. absteigender Linie.

Die relationships of brother and sister sind nicht abstract, sondern in der doppelten Form v. »älter« u. »jünger«, mit special terms for each:

Elder Brother Ha’-je; Younger Brother: Ha’-gă; Elder sister: Ah’-jē; Younger Sister: Ka’-gă.

The relationship of the same person to Ego in many cases different mit change of the sex of the Ego.

Ist collateral line: Für male Seneca his brother’s son and daughters daughter are his son and daughter (Ha-ah’-wuk u. Ka-ah’-wuk) u. beide nennen ihn Vater (Hä’-nih). Ebenso seines brother’s grandchildren his grandsons (Ha-yä’-da (singular)[)] u. granddaughters (Ka-yä’-da); beide nennen ihn (Hoc’-sote) grandfather. Also his brothers brother’s children u. grandchildren in same category with his own.

Ferner: für male Seneca his sister’s son and daughter are his nephew (Ha-yă-wan-da Ha-yă’-wan-da) u. niece (Ka-yă-wan-da Ka-yă’-wan-da), each calling him uncle (Hoc-no’-sch Hoc-no’-seh). So relationships of nephew and niece restricted to the children of a man’s sisters, own and collateral.

The children of this nephew and niece are his grandchildren, as before, u. he their grandfather.

Für Seneca female einige dieser relationships different; her brother’s sons son and daughter are her nephew (Ha-soh’-neh) und niece (Ka-soh’-neh) u. beide nennen sie aunt (Ah-ga’-huc). (andre terms als für nephew u. niece des male Seneca) The children dieser nephews u. nieces sind ihre grand-children.

Her sister’s son and daughter are her son and daughter, jeder v. beiden nennt sie Mutter (Noh-yeh’) u. deren children sind ihre grand-children, nennen sie grandmother (Oc’-sote). The wives of these sons and nephews are her daughters-in-law (Ka’-sä) u. die husbands dieser daughters u. nieces are her sons in law (Oc-na’-hose) u. they apply to her the proper correlative.

IInd collateral line. For male u. female Seneca: father’s brother his or her father, calls [him or] her son or daughter. Also all the brothers of a father are placed in the relation of a father. Their sons and daughters are his or her brothers and sisters, elder or younger. Alias: the children of brothers are in the relationship of brothers and sisters.

Für male Seneca, the children of these brothers are his sons and daughters, their children his grandchildren; die children of these sisters his nephews and nieces, and the children of the latter his grand-children.

Für female Seneca: the children of these brothers her nephews u. nieces, the children of these sisters her sons and daughters, and their children alike her grandchildren.

Des father’s sister ist des Seneca’s aunt, calls him nephew, if he is a male. The relationship of aunt restricted to the father’s sister and the sisters of such other persons as stand to Seneca in the relation of a father, to the exclusion of the mother’s sisters. The father’s sister’s children are cousins (Ah-gare’-seh).

Für male Seneca: the children of his male cousins are his sons and daughters u. of his female cousins his nephews and nieces.

 Bei Morgan, S. 439: but with myself a female these last relationships are reversed
Schließen
Für female Seneca: the id. id. are her nephews u. nieces and ditto her sons and daughters
.

All children of the latter his or her grandchildren.|

12

Für male Seneca: mother’s brother is uncle, calls him nephew; the relationship of uncle hier restricted to the mother’s brothers, own and collateral, to the exclusion of the father’s brothers. His children sind des male Seneca’s cousins, the children of his male cousins are his sons and daughters, of his female cousins his nephews and nieces;

  Bei Morgan, S. 439: but with myself a female these last relationships are reversed, the children of all alike are my grandchildren
Schließen
für female Seneca the children of all her cousins are her grandchildren.

Female: The mother’s sisters are my mothers, the mother mother’s sister’s children my brothers and sisters, elder and younger. The children of these brothers are my sons and daughters, of these sisters my nephews and nieces; and the children of the latter my grandchildren.

Für female: reversed the same relationships as before.

Für male Seneca: Each of the wives of these several brothers and of these several male cousins is his sister-in-law (Ah-ge-ah’-ne-ah), each of them calls him: brother-in-law (Ha-yă’-o).

Each of the husbands of these several sisters and female cousins is my brother-in-law.

Traces of the punaluan custom remain here and there in the marriage relationship of the American aborigines; .

In Mandan my brother’s wife is my wife, in Pawnee u. Arickaree the same; in Crow my husband’s brother’s wife is „my comrade“; in Creek my „present occupant“, in Munsee „my friend“, in Winnebago u. Achaotinne „my sister“. My wife’s sister’s husband is in some tribes „my brother“, in others „my brother-in-law“, in Creek, „my little separater“ whatever that may mean.

 Bei Morgan, S. 440: Third Collateral Line. As the relationships in the several branches of this line are the same as in the corresponding branches of the second, with the exception of one additional ancestor, it will be sufficient to present one branch out of the four.
Schließen
IIId collateral line: hier nur one branch (4 entsprechend den vorhergehenden) considered.

my fathers father’s father’s brother is my grandfather, calls me his grandson. It places these brothers in the relation of grandfathers and thus prevents collateral ascendants from passing beyond this relationship. The principle which merges the collateral lines in the lineal line works upwards as well as downwards. The son of this grandfather is my father, his children my brothers and sisters, the children of these sisters brothers are my sons and daughters, of these sisters my nephews and nieces; and their children my grandchildren. With Ego being a female the same relationships reversed as in previous cases.

IVth collateral line. Auch nur eine branch dieser line betrachtet.

My grandfather’s father’s brother is my grandfather; his son also my grandfather; the son of the latter my father; his son and daughter my brother and sister, elder or younger; and their children and grandchildren follow in the same relationships to Ego as in other cases.

V coll. line: Classification same as in the corresponding branches of IId, except of additional ancestors.

In Seneca-Iroquois terms for father-in-law (Oc-na’-hose), for a wife’s father, and Hä-gä’-sä for a husband’s father. Former term also used for a son-in-law. Terms also for stepfather (Hoc’-no-ese) u. stepmother (Oc’-no-ese), stepson (Ha’-no) u. stepdaughter (Ka’-no). In a number of tribes 2 fathers-in-law and 2 mothers-in-law are related, and terms to express the connection. [436–441]

In about one half of all the relationships named, the Turanian system is identical with the Malayan.

Seneca u. Tamil unterscheiden sich von Hawaiian in den relationships which depended on intermarriage or non-intermarriage of brothers and sisters. In den 2 ersteren z. B. my sister’s son is my nephew, in dem latter my son.

The change of relationships resulting from the substitution der punaluan in place of the consanguine family turns the Malayan in the Turanian system.

In Polynesia family punaluan; system of consanguinity bleibt Malayan;

In  Bei Morgan, S. 442: America
Schließen
Northamerica
family syndyasmian, system of consanguinity
bleibt Turanian;

In Europe u. Western Asia family becomes monogamian, system of consanguinity blieb für Zeitlang Turanian, bis fallend in decadence u. succeeded by the Aryan. [441, 442]|

13

The Malayan system must have prevailed generally in Asia before the Malayan migration to the Islands of the Pacific; the system (Turanian) transmitted in the Malayan form to the ancestors of the three families, with the streams of the blood, from a common Asiatic source; afterward modified into its present form by the remote ancestors of the Turanian and Ganowanian Ganowánian families. [445]

The principal relationships of the Turanian system created by punaluan family; several of the marriage relationships have changed. The brotherhood of the husbands and the sisterhood of the wives formed the basis of the relation fully expressed by the Hawaiian custom of pŭnalŭa. Theoretically the family of the period was coextensive with the group united in the marriage relation; but practically, it must have subdivided into a number of smaller families for convenience of habitation and subsistence. The brothers, by 10 and 12, of the Britons, married to each other’s wives, may indicate the size of an ordinary subdivision of a pŭnalŭan group. [445, 446]

Communism in living seems to have originated in the necessities of the consanguine family, to have been continued in the punaluan, and transmitted to the syndyasmian unter den American aborigines, with whom it remained a practice down to the epoch of their discovery. [446]  Bemerkung von Marx.
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(And the South Slavonians? and even Russians to a certain degree?)

Part III. Ch. IV. The Syndyasmian and the Patriarchal families.

Syndyasmian od. pairing family gefunden bei Entdeckung der American aborigines unter der Portion derselben who were in the Lower State of Barbarism; married pairs, forming clearly marked though but partially individualized families. In dieser family der germ der monogamian family. [453]

Verschiedne der Syndyasmischen families usually found in one house  Bemerkung von Marx.
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⦗wie bei Südslaven: der monogamischen Familien
, forming a communal household  Bemerkung von Marx.
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⦗wie Südslaven u. in some degree: Russian peasants vor u. nach Leibeignenemancipation⦘
, worin the principle of communism in living was practised. Dies fact beweist that the family was too feeble an organization to face alone the hardships of life; aber founded upon marriage between single pairs. Die woman war jetzt etwas mehr als das principal wife of her husband; birth of children tended to cement the union and make it permanent. [453, 454]

Marriages hier founded not upon »sentiment«, but upon convenience and necessity. Die mothers arranged the marriages of their children, ohne deren previous consent od. knowledge; oft so strangers brought into marriage relation; at the proper time they were informed when the simple nuptial ceremony was to be performed. So usages bei Iroquois u. many other Indian tribes. Prior to the marriage, presents to the gentile relatives of the bride, partaking in the nature of purchasing gifts, became feature of these matrimonial transactions. The relation continued only at the pleasure of the parties, Mann oder Frau. Nach u. nach gebildet u. Kraft gewinnend public sentiment gegen diese separations; when dissension arose, erst Vermittlung versucht durch die gentile kindred of each party. Half das nicht, so verliess Weib das Haus ihres Manns, nahm mit ihren personal effects auch die Kinder, regarded as exclusive her own; wo des wife’s kindred predominated in the communal household, was gewöhnlich der Fall, the husband left the home of his wife. So continuance of marriage relations at the option of the parties. [454, 455]

Rev. Arthur Asher Wright, many years a missionary among the Senecas, wrote to Morgan in 1873 hierüber: As to their families, when occupying the old long-houses … some one clan predominated, the women taking in husbands from the other other clans; and sometimes, for a novelty, some of their sons bringing in their young wives until they felt brave enough to leave their mothers. Usually, the female portion ruled the housethe stores were in common; but woe to the luckless husband or lover who was too shiftless to do his share of the providing. No matter how many children, or whatever goods he might have in the house, he might at any time be ordered to pick up and budge, durfte nicht attempt to disobey. The house would be too hot for him, … he must retreat to his own clan; or, as was often done, go and start a new matrimonial alliance in some other. The women were the great power among the clans, as everywhere else. They did not hesitate, when occasion required, ‘to knock off the horns’, as it was technically called, from the head of a chief, and send him back to the ranks of the warriors. The original nomination of the chiefs also always rested with them.“ Cf: Bachofen: „Das Mutterrecht“, wo gyneocracy discussed. |

14

Unter den Iroquois, barbarians in Lower Status of barbarism, but of high mental grade, and among the equally advanced Indian tribes generally, verlangten die Männer under severe penalties Keuschheit v. den Weibern, aber nicht reciprocal obligation; polygamy universally recognized as the right of the males, was in practice limited from inability to support the indulgence. In syndyasmian family – absence of exclusive cohabitation. The old conjugal system remained, but under reduced u. restricted forms. [455, 456]

Aehnlich unter den Village Indians in the Middle Status of barbarism. Nach Clavigero (Hist. of Mexico) settled the parents all marriages. „A priest tied a point of the huepilli (gown) of the bride with the tilmatli (mantle of the bridegroom) and in this ceremony the matrimonial contract chiefly consisted.“ Herrera (History of America) says „all that the bride brought was kept in memory, that in cases case they should be unmarried again, as was usual among them, the goods might be parted; the man taking the daughters, and the wife the son sons, with liberty to marry again.“ Polygamy a recognized right of the males among the Village Indians, more generally practiced, than among the less advanced tribes. [456, 457]

In the punaluan family was more or less of pairing from the necessities of the social state, each man having a principal wife among a number of wives and vice versa; so that tendency in the direction of the syndyasmian family. Dies result hauptsächlich hervorgebracht durch die organization into gentes. In dieser organization:

1) Prohibition of intermarriage in the gens excluded own brothers and sisters, and also the children of own sisters, da diese alle in der gens. Bei subdivision der gens the prohibition of intermarriage – with all the descendants in the female line of each ancestor in the gens – followed its branches, for long periods of time, as shown was the case among the Iroquois.

2) The structure der gens created a prejudice against the marriage of consanguinei; war schon sehr general unter den American origines aborigines zur Zeit ihrer Entdeckung. z. B. unter den Iroquois none of the blood relatives enumerated were marriageable. Since es ward nöthig to seek wives from other gentes they began to be acquired by negotiation u. by purchase; scarcity of wives statt previous abundance; so gradually contracted the numbers of in the punaluan group. Such groups have now disappeared, obgleich das [Turanian] system of consanguinity remains.

3) In seeking wives they did not confine themselves to their own, nor even friendly tribes; captured them by force from hostile tribes; hence Indian usage to spare the lives of female captives, while the males were put to death. When wives acquired by purchase and by capture, they not so readily shared  Bei Morgan, S. 459: with others
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as before
. This tended to cut off that portion of the theoretical group not immediately associated for subsistence; reduced still more the size of the family and the range of the conjugal system. Practically group limited itself, from the first, to own brothers who shared their wives in common and own sisters who shared their husbands in common.

4) Gens created a higher structure of society than before known. Die marriage of unrelated persons created a more vigorous stock physically and mentally; 2 advancing tribes blended, the new skull and brain would widen and lengthen to the sum of the capabilities of both. –

The propensity to pair, now so powerful in the civilized races, also nicht normal to mankind, but a growth through experience, like all the great passions u. powers of the mind. [457–460]

Warfare under barbarians – from more improved weapons and stronger incentives – zerstört more life als Krieg unter savages; the males trieben stets the trade of fighting; left females in excess; this strenghtened the conjugal system created by marriages in the group; retarded the advancement der syndyasmian family. Dagegen improvement in subsistence, following the cultivation of maize u. plants, favored the general advancement der family (bei den American aborigines). The more stable such a family, the more its individuality developed. Having taken a refuge in a communal household, in which a group of such families succeeded the punaluan group, it now drew its support from itself, from the household and the gentes to which the husbands and wives respectively belonged. Syndyasmian family springing up on the confines of savagery and barbarism, it traversed the Middle and greater part of the Later Period of barbarism, bis superseded by a low form of the monogamian. Overshadowed by the conjugal system of the times, it gained in recognition with the gradual progress of society. [460, 461]

 Zusatz von Marx.
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Morgan sagt, was oft anwendbar, von den Old Britons:
(in the middle status of barbarism) »they seem to have been savages in their brains, while wearing the art apparel of more advanced tribes.« [462]

Iron has been smelted from the ore by a number of African tribes, including the Hottentots, as far back as our knowledge of them extends. After producing the metal by rude processes acquired from foreign sources, they have succeeded in fabricating |15 rude instruments and weapons. (463)

Die Entwicklungen müssen studirt werden in areas where the institutions are homogeneous. Polynesia u. Australia best areas for the study of savage society. North u. South America für condition of society in the Lower and Middle Status of Barbarism. M. nimmt an „Asiatic origin of the American aborigines“. Their advent in America could not have been resulted from a deliberate migration, but due to the accidents of the sea, and to the great ocean currents from Asia to the Nortwest coast. (464)

Middle State of barbarism – in 16t century –  Zusammenfassend von Marx. Siehe Morgan, S. 465: In no part of the earth was there to be found such a display of society in this Status
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(splendidly)
exemplified by the Village Indians of New Mexico, Mexico, Central America, Grenada, Ecuador and Peru, with its advanced arts and inventions, improved architecture, nascent manufactures and incipient sciences.

Upper Status of barbarism – Grecian, Roman, and later on the German tribes. [465]

Patriarchal family of the Semitic tribes belongs to the Later Period of Barbarism and remained for a time after the commencement of civilization. Chiefs lived in polygamy; dies nicht the material principle of the patriarchal institution. Was diese Familienform wesentlich charakterisirt: Organization of a number of persons, bond and free, into a family, under paternal power, for the purpose of holding lands, and for the care of flocks and herds. Those held to servitude, and those employed as servants, lived in the marriage relation, and with the patriarch as their chief, formed a patriarchal family. Authority over its members and over its property was the material fact.  Zusammenfassung von Marx in eigenen Worten. Bei Morgan, S. 466: It was the incoropration […], before that time unknown, rather than the poligamy, that stamped the patriarcal family with the attributes of an original insititution.
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Das Charakteristische: the incorporation of numbers in servile and dependent relations, before that time unknown.
Paternal power over the group; with it a higher individuality of persons. [465, 466]

So auch die Roman family under patria potestas; Macht des pater über Leben u. Tod seiner Kinder u. descendants, wie über slaves und servants who formed the nucleus of the family and furnished its name; his absolute ownership of all the property they created. Without polygamy, the Roman pater familias was a patriarch and his family a patriarchal family. In mindrem Grad selbe Charakteristik der ancient family der Grecian tribes.

The patriarchal family marks the peculiar epoch in human progress when the individuality of the person began to rise above the gens, in which it previously had been merged; its general influence tended powerfully to the establishment of the monogamian family … Its Hebrew and Roman forms exceptional in human experience. Paternal authority »impossible« in the consanguine and punaluan families; began to appear as a feeble influence in the syndyasmian family, ward fully established under monogamy u. beyond all bounds of reason in the patriarchal family of the Roman type. [466, 467]

Part III. Ch. V. The Monogamian Family.

 Bei Morgan, S. 468: Such, in fact, was the most ancient form of the institution made known to us among the Latin, Grecian and Hebrew tribes. Thus, by relation, the patriarchal family was made the typical family of primitive society, conceived either in the Latin or Hebrew form, paternal power being the essence of the organism.
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Mode: patriarchal family – in Latin or Hebrew form – zur typical form of primitive society zu machen
. The gens, as it appeared in the later period of barbarism, was understood, but erroneously supposed to be subsequent in point of time to the monogamian family. The gens was treated as an aggregation of families; aber gens entered ganz in phratry, phratry in tribe, tribe into the nation; aber family could not enter entirely into the gens, because husband and wife were necessarily of different gentes. The wife, down to the latest period, counted herself of the gens of her father, and bore the name of his gens under the Romans. As all the parts must enter into the whole, the family could not become the unit of the gentile organization, that place was held by the gens. [468, 469]

family – modern appearence unter  Bei Morgan, S. 469: Latin
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Roman
tribes; beweist die Bedeutung von familia, contains same element as famulus = servant.  Das Wort famulus kommt aus dem Oskischen, in dem ein Sklave famul genannt wurde; von da auch das Wort familia.

nominabun(?)tur: Bei Morgan, S. 469, Fn. 1: nominabuntur. Bei Festus: nominabatur.
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Festus sagt: »Famuli origo ab Oscis dependet, apud quos servus famul nominabun(?)tur, unde [et] familia vocata.«
Also in seiner primären Bedeutung family unbezogen auf das married pair od. dessen children, sondern in relation to the body of slaves and servants who labored for its maintenance and were under the power of the pater familias. In einigen testamentarischen dispositions ist Familia used als Equivalent für patrimonium, the inheritance which passed to the heir.   der gab […] einem Freunde seine familia d.h. sein Vermögen mancipationsweise […] (Übers. Friedrich Wilhelm Konrad Beckhaus.)
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Gajus instit. II, 102: »Amico familiam suam, id est patrimonium suum mancipio dabat.«
Wurde introducirt in Lateinische Gesellschaft to define a new organism, the head of which held wife and children, and a body of servile persons under paternal power. Mommsen nennt die familia a „body of servants“. (Roman Hist.) Dieser term also nicht älter als the iron-clad family system |16 of the Latin tribes, which came in after field agriculture and after legalized servitude, as well as after the separation of the Greeks and  Bei Morgan, S. 470: Latins
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Romans
. [469, 470]  Kommentar von Marx. Von Engels erwähnt im „Ursprung“ (MEGA² I/29. S. 34), ohne sich auf Fourier zu beziehen. Allerdings äußert er sich in der letzten Fußnote des Werkes wie folgt: „Ich beabsichtigte anfangs, die brillante Kritik der Civilisation, die sich in den Werken Charles Fouriers zerstreut vorfindet, neben diejenige Morgan’s und meine eigne zu stellen. Leider fehlte mir die Zeit dazu. Ich bemerke nur, daß schon bei Fourier Monogamie und Grundeigenthum als Hauptkennzeichen der Civilisation gelten und daß er sie einen Krieg des Reichen gegen den Armen nennt.“ (MEGA² I/29. S. 113.)
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Fourier charakterisirt Epoche der Civilisation durch Monogamy u. Grund Privateigentum. Die moderne Familie enthält im Keim nicht nur servitus (Sklaverei) sondern auch Leibeigenschaft, da sie von vorn herein Beziehung auf Dienste für Ackerbau. Sie enthält in Miniatur alle die Antagonismen in sich, die sich später breit entwickeln in der Gesellschaft u. ihrem Staat.⦘

Mit der syndyasmischen Familie Keim der väterlichen Autorität, entwickelt sich je mehr die neue Familie monogamische Charaktere annimmt. Sobald property began to be created in masses u. the desire for its transmission to children had changed descent from the female line to the male, wurde zuerst a real foundation for paternal power gelegt.  Ferner stehen in unsrer potestas unsre in civilrechtlich anerkannter Ehe erzeugten Kinder. Und dieses Gewaltverhältniß ist den römischen Bürgern eigenthümlich, denn es giebt wol nicht leicht andre Völker, die eine solche potestas über ihre Hauskinder haben wie wir (Übers. Friedrich Wilhelm Konrad Beckhaus.)
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Gajus selbst sagt Inst. I, 55: »Item in potestate nostra sunt liberi nostri ⦗auch jus vitae necisque⦘, quos justis nuptiis procreavimus, quod jus proprium civium Romanorum est: fere enim nulli alii sunt homines, qui talem in filios suos habent potestatem, quod qualem nos habemus
Monogamy appears in a definite form in the Later Period of Barbarism. [470, 471]

Old Germans: their institutions homogeneous and indigenous. Nach Tacitus marriages strict among them; contented themselves with a single wife, a very few excepted on account of their rank; husband brought dowry to his wife (not vice versa), nämlich a caparisoned horse and a shield, with a spear and sword; by virtue of these gifts the wife was espoused. (Germania, c. 18) The presents in the nature of purchasing gift – zweifelsohne früher für gentile kindred of the wife – damals schon went to bride.  Sie begnügen sich mit nur einer Gattin (Übers. Josef Lindauer.)

Marx’ Exemplar von C. Cornelii Taciti opera. Ex recensione Io. Augusti Ernesti. T. 2. Lipsiae 1772, der die „Germania“ enthält, ist überliefert (siehe MEGA² IV/32. Nr. 1296). Er hat die zitierten Worte dort zunächst mit Grünstift unter- und angestrichen und später noch einmal mit Blaustift unterstrichen. Erwähnt war diese Ausgabe in Marx’ Verzeichnis römischer Autoren in einem seiner Bonner Hefte von 1842 (MEGA² IV/1. S. 341), in einem Verzeichnis seiner Bücher in seinem Notizbuch aus den Jahren 1844 bis 1847 (MEGA² IV/3. S. 6.29) und in dem von Roland Daniels 1850 zusammengestellten Verzeichnis seiner 1849 in Köln zurückgelassenen Bücher (MEGA² IV/5. S. 301.29).
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»Singulis uxoribus contenti sunt« (Germania, c. 19 18)
u. die Weiber  Sie leben […] in umhegter Keuschheit (Übers. Josef Lindauer.)
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»septae septa pudicitia agunt«.

Wahrscheinlich family »sheltered itself in a communal household  Zusatz von Marx.
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(wie Sudslaven Südslaven)
composed of related families. When slavery became an institution, these households would gradually disappear.[«] [471, 472]  Bemerkung von Marx.
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⦗In fact: die monogamische family unterstellt, um selbstständig, isolated, existiren zu können, überall a domestic class, die in ursprünglich überall direct slaves.⦘

Homeric Greeks: Monogamian family of a low type. the treatment of their female captives reflects the culture of the period with respect to women in general; tentlive tent life of Achilles u. Patroclus; whatever of monogamy existed, was through an enforced constraint upon wives ⦗some degree of seclusion⦘; . [472, 473]

Der change of descent von der female line to the male schädlich für Position u. Rechte der Frau u. Mutter; ihre Kinder transferred von ihrer gens zur gens ihres husband; sie verlor durch marriage ihre agnatic rights, erhielt kein Equivalent dafür; vor dem change, die Glieder ihrer eignen Gens predominated in the household; dies gave full force to the maternal bond u. machte women rather than men the center of the family. Nach dem change stand sie allein im household ihres husband, isolated from her gentile kindred. Under the prosperous classes her condition of enforced seclusion u. als primary object der marriage to beget children in lawful wedlock (παιδοποιεῖσθαι γνησίως). [473, 474]

Von Anfang bis End unter den Griechen a principle of studied selfishness among the males, tending to lessen the appreciation of women, scarcely found among savages … the usages of centuries stamped upon the minds of Grecian women a sense of their inferiority.  Kommentar von Marx. Engels erwähnt diesen Kommentar im „Ursprung“ (MEGA² I/29. S. 35).
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⦗Aber das Verhältniss der Göttinnen im Olymp zeigt Rückerinnerung an frühere freiere u. einflussreichere Position der Weiber. Die Juno herrschsüchtig, die Weisheit Göttin, springt aus Kopf des Zeus etc⦘
 Bei Morgan, S. 474: It was, perhaps, one of the sacrifices required of womankind to bring this portion of the human race out of the syndyasmian into the monogamian family. It still remains an enigma that a race, with endowments great enough to impress their mental life upon the world, should have
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Es war vielleicht … diese Race nöthig, um aus Syndyasmian in Monogamian system herüberzukommen. Greeks
blieben barbarians in their treatment of the female sex at the height of their civilization; their education superficial, intercourse with the opposite sex denied them, their inferiority inculcated as a principle upon them, until it came to be accepted as a fact by the women themselves. Das wife not companion equal to her husband, but in the relation of a daughter. [474, 475]

See Becker: Charicles.

 Bei Morgan, S. 477: The growth of property and the desire for its transmission to children was, in reality, the moving power which brought in monogamy to insure legitimate heirs, and to limit their number to the actual progeny of the married pair. A knowledge of the paternity of children […] had not attained the requisite degree of certainty because of the survival of some portion of the ancient jura conjugialia. It explains […]
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Da die moving power which brought in monogamy was – the growth of property and the desire for its transmission to children – legitimate heirs, the actual progeny of the married pair in the Upper Status of Barbarism sprang up – als protection gegen das survival of some portion of the ancient jura conjugalia
the new usage: the seclusion of wives; plan of [domestic] life among the civilized Greeks – a system of female confinement and restraint. [477]|

17

Roman family: Mater familias was mistress of the family; went into the streets freely ohne restraint by her husband, frequented with the men the theaters and festive banquets; in the house not confined to particular appartments apartments, nor excluded from the table of the men; Roman females daher mehr personal dignity u. independence als griechische; aber marriage gave them in manum viri; war = daughter des husband; he had the power of correction u. of life u. death in case of adultery (mit concurrence of the council of her gens). [477, 478]

Confarreatio, coëmptio, usus, alle 3 Formen der röm. Ehe, gaben Frau in manus des Mannes, fell out under the Empire, when free marriage generally adopted, not placing the wife in manus des Mannes.

Divorce, von frühster Periode, at the option of the parties, (wahrscheinlich transmitted v. Syndyasmian family Period), selten in Republik. (Becker: Gallus) [478]

Licentiousness – so auffallend in Grecian u. Roman cities at the height of civilization – in all probability remains of an ancient conjugal system, never fully eradicated, had followed down from barbarism as a social taint u. now expressed its excesses in the new channel ofhaeterism hetaerism. [479]

 Bei Morgan, S. 480/481: the Aryan, Semitic and Uralian families of mankind formerly possessed the Turanian system of consanguinity, and that it fell into desuetude under monogamy.
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Der Monogamian family entsprach Aryan (Semitic, Uralian) system of consanguinity and affinity.
Gentes had their natural origin in the punaluan family. The principal branches of the Aryan  Bei Morgan, S. 481: family
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stock
organized into gentes when first known historically;  Bei Morgan, S. 481: sustaining the inference that, when one undivided people, they were thus organized. From this fact the further presumption arises that they derived the organization through a remote ancestry who lived in that same punaluan condition which gave birth to this remarkable and wide-spread institution. Besides this, the Turanian system of consanguinity is
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zeigt dass sie auch dort anfingen u. aus der punaluan family entsprang Turanian system of consanguinity
, still found connected with the gens in its archaic form among the American aborigines. Also auch dies ursprüngliches system der Aryans. Im Aryan system of consanguinity – Armuth of original nomenclature for relationship erklärt dadurch dass a large portion of the nomenclature of the Turanian system would fall out under monogamy. Common unter den several Aryan dialects nur: father u. mother, brother u. sister, son u. daughter u. a common term applied indiscriminately to nephew, grandson and cousin (Sanscrit: naptar, lat. nepos, Greek: ἀνεψιός). In so advanced Cultur, wie Monogamy voraussetzt, they could not have arrived mit such a scanty nomenclature of blood relationships. Erklärt with a previous system wie das Turanian, durch impoverishment. [480–482]

Im Turanian system brothers u. sisters – younger u. elder u. the several terms applied to categories of persons including persons not own brothers and sisters. Im Aryan, on basis of monogamy, terms for brother u. sister now in the abstract for the first time u. inapplicable to collaterals.

Remains of a prior Turanian system still appear: So bei Hungarians brothers u. sisters classified als elder u. younger by special terms. French frère (aîné\älter, pûné puîné u. cadet\junger); aînée u. cadette älter u. junger sister. Sanskrit: älter Bruder u. jüngerer (agrajar u. amujar), ditto für Schwester (agrajri u. amujri). If common terms once existed in Greek, Roman etc dialects für elder u. younger brother and sister, their former application to categories of persons, machte sie unanwendbar als exclusiv für own brothers and sisters.

Für grandfather no common term in the Aryan dialects. Sansk. pitameha, Gr. πάππος, lat. avus, Russ. djed, Welsh: hendad. Der term in a previous system (Turanian) was applied nicht nur zu grandfather proper, his brothers and several male cousins, sondern auch to brothers u. several male cousins of his grandmother; konnte daher nicht be made to signify a lineal grandfather and progenitor under monogamy.

Kein term für uncle u. aunt in the abstract u. no special terms für uncle u. aunt väterl. u. mütterl. Seite in den Aryan dialects. Sansk. pitroya, Gr. πάτρως, lat. patruus, Slavonic: stryc; Anglo-Saxon, Belgian, German: eam, oom, oheim for paternal uncle. In der Aryan original speech no term für Onkel mütterlicher Seite, a relationship made so conspicuous by the gens among barbarous tribes. If the previous system Turanian, necessarily a term hierfür, aber restricted to the own brothers of the mother, and her several male cousins; die Categorie schloss numbers of persons ein wovon viele could not be uncles under the monogamian system. [482, 483]

 Bei Morgan, S. 483: Assuming that the nations of the Aryan, Semitic and Uralian families formerly possessed the Turanian system of consanguinity, the transition from it to a descriptive system was simple and natural, after the old system, through monogamy, had become untrue to descents as they would then exist.
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Dagegen erklärt sich, bei früherer Existenz des Turanian Systems (by categories) der Uebergang zu descriptive system auf Basis der Monogamy.
Jede relationship under monogamy is specific; persons, under the new system, described by means of the primary terms or combinations of them as brother’s son für nephew, father’s brother für Onkel, father’s brother’s son für cousin. Dies war the original of the present system of the Aryan, Semitic u. Uralian families. The generalizations they now contain |18 were of later origin. All the tribes, die das Malayan u. Turanian system besassen, described their kindred by the same formula, when asked in what manner one person was related to another; nicht as a system of consanguinity, but as a means of tracing relationships. Schluss daraus: nach allgemeiner Errichtung des monogamian systems unter Aryans etc, fielen diese back upon the old descriptive form, always in use under the Turanian system u. dropten diesselbst als useless u. untrue to descents. [483, 484]

Beweis dass das original des present system purely descriptive: Erse – typical Aryan form, Esthonian – typical Uralian – are still descriptive. Im Erse the only terms for the bloodrelationships the primary: father and mother, brother and sister, son and daughter. Alle andre kindred described vermittelst dieser terms, commencing in the reverse order. z. B. brother, son of brother, son of son of brother. The Aryan system exhibits the actual relationships under monogamy, assumes that the paternity of children is known. [484]

Später a method of description, materially different from the Celtic, was engrafted upon the new system; but without changing its radical features; introduced by the Roman civilians, angenommen durch verschiedne Aryan nations, unter denen Roman influence extended. Slavonic System has some features entirely peculiar, of Turanian origin (see: Systems of consanguinity etc p. 40).

Römische Aenderungen: unterschieden väterlichen u. mütterlichen Onkel mit besondern terms dafür, erfanden term für Grossvater als correlative of nepos. Mit diesen terms u. den primary, in connection mit suitable augments, konnten sie systematize the relationships in the lineal u. the first 5 collateral lines, which included the body of the kindred of each individual.

The Arabic system passed through processes similar to the Roman u. mit similar results. [484, 485]

Von Ego to tritavus, in the lineal line, 6 generations of ascendants u. von Ego to trinepos the same number of descendants, in deren description nur 4 radical terms used. Wäre es nöthig to ascend farther, tritavus would become the new starting point of description: tritavi pater bis tritavi tritavus; the 12th ancestor of Ego in the lineal line, male; ebenso trinepotis trinepos etc.

1st collateral line male: frater; fratris filius; fratris nepos; fratris pronepos bis fratris trinepos; wenn zum 12t descendant fratris trinepotis trinepos. Durch diese simple Method frater is made the root of descent in this line.

Same line: female: soror, sororis filia, sororis neptis, sororis proneptis bis sororis trineptis (6th degree) u. sororis trineptis trineptis (12th descendant).

Beide Linien descend von pater; aber, by making the brother and sister the root of descent in the description, the line and its two branches are maintained distinct, and the relationship of each person to Ego is specialized.

2nd collateral line: male on the father’s side: father’s brother, patruus; patrui filius, p. nepos, p. pronepos, p. trinepos, bis patrui trinepotis trinepos.

patrui filius heisst auch frater patruelis, u. in gewöhnl. Volkssprache consobrinus (cousin).

  ingleichen die Brüdersöhne und Brüdertöchter, d.h. diejenigen beiderlei Geschlechts, welche von zwei Brüdern erzeugt worden sind, ferner die Schwestersöhne und Schwestertöchter, d.h. diejenigen beiderlei Geschlechts, die von zwei Schwestern geboren worden, gleichsam Verschwisterte, endlich die Geschwisterkinder beiderlei Geschlechts, d.h. die von einem Bruder und einer Schwester abstammen; alle diese nennt man im gemeinen Leben gewöhnlich Geschwisterkinder [consobrinos]. (Übers. Carl Friedrich Ferdinand Sintenis.)
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Pand. lib. XXXVIII, tit. 10 »Item fratres patrueles, sorores patrueles, id. est qui quaeve ex duobus fratribus progenerantur; item consobrini consobrinae, id est qui quaeve ex duobus duabus sororibus nascuntur (quasi consorini consororini); item amitini amitinae, id est qui quaeve ex fratre ex et sorore propagantur; sed fere vulgos vulgus istos omnes communi appellatione consobrinus consobrinos vocat.«

female on the father’s side. : father’s sister; amita, amitae filius filia, a. neptis, a. trineptis, a. trineptis trineptis; special term for amitae filia amitina.

3d collateral line: male on the father’s side[:] grandfather’s brother – patruus magnus (keine existing language has an original term for this relationship); patrui magni filius, nepos, trinepos, ending with patrui magni trinepotis trinepos.|

19

same line female (on father’s side) commences with amita magna, great paternal aunt etc.

4th and 5th collateral lines on the father’s side commence respectively mit patruus major (great grandfather’s brother) u. patruus maximus (great-great-grandfather’s brother). Geht dann wie vorhin: patrui majoris filius, bis trinepos u. patrui maximi filius bis trinepos.

Female branches (on paternal side) commence respectively mit amita major u. amita maxima.

die relatives on the mother’s side, the first collateral line  Zusatz von Marx.
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soror etc
remains the same, während the female lineal line is substituted for the male.

Second collateral line

(on mother’s side):

avunculus (maternal uncle),  Bei Morgan, S. 489: and on as before
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avunculi filius, nepos, trinepos etc.
In the female branch (on mother’s side):

matertera (maternal aunt), materterae filia, neptis, proneptis, trineptis etc.

Third collateral line, male and female (on mother’s side), begin respectively mit: avunculus magnus u. matertera magna;
Fourth mit avunculus major u. matertera major.
Fifth avunculus maximus u. matertera maxima. [485–489]

 Bei Morgan, S. 491: When the fact is accepted that the family has passed through four successive forms, and is now in a fifth, the question at once arises whether this form can be permanent in the future. The only answer that can be given is, that
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Mit Bezug auf die present monogamian family:
it must advance as society advances, and change as society changes, even as it has done in the past. It is the creature of the social system  Bei Morgan, S. 491/492: and will reflect its culture. As the monogamian family has improved greatly since the commencement of civilization, and very sensibly in modern times, it is at least
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… must be
supposable that it is capable of still farther improvement until the equality of the sexes is attained. Should the monogamian family in the distant future fail to answer the requirements of society, assuming the continuous progress of civilization, it is impossible to predict the nature of its successor. (491, 492)

Part III. Ch. VI. Sequence of Institutions connected with the family.

First stage of sequence: I) Promiscuous Intercourse.
II) Intermarriage of Brothers and Sisters, own and collateral, in a group; gives:
III) The Consanguine Family (first stage of the family[)]; gives:
IV) The Malayan System of Consanguinity u. Affinity.
Second Stage of Sequence: V) The organization upon the Basis of Sex, and the Punaluan Custom, tending to check the intermarriage of brothers and sisters; gives:
VI) The Punaluan Family (Second Stage of the Family), gives:
VII) The Organization into Gentes, which excluded brothers and sisters from marriage. Gives:
VIII) The Turanian and Ganonian Ganowánian System of Consanguinity and Affinity.
Third Stage of Sequence. IX) Increasing influence of Gentile Organization and improvement in the arts of life, advancing a portion of mankind into the Lower Status of Barbarism, gives:
X) Marriage between single pairs, but without an exclusive cohabitation; gives:
XI) Syndyasmian Family (Third Stage of the Family).
Fourth stage of Sequence. XII) Pastoral life on the plains in limited areas, gives:
XIII) Patriarchal family (Fourth, but exceptional Stage of family)
Fifth Stage of Sequence: XIV) Rise of Property, and settlement of lineal succession to estates, gives:
XV) The Monogamian family (Fifth Stage of the family), gives:
XVI) The Aryan, Semitic and Uralian system of Consanguinity and Affinity, and overthrows the Turanian. [498, 499]

I) Promiscuous intercourse. Leben in Horde; no marriage; far below the lowest savage now living; The ruder flint implements found over part of the earth’s surface, and not used by existing savages, attest extreme rudeness of man’s condition, after he had emerged from his primitive habitat, and commenced, as a fisherman, his spread over continental areas. – Primitive Savage. [500]|

20

The consanguine family … recognized promiscuity within defined limits, and those not the narrowest, and its point it points through its organism to a worse condition against which it interposed a shield. [501]

ad V)  In theAustralian male and female classes united in marriage, punaluan groups are found. Among the Hawaiians, the same group is also found, with the marriage custom it expresses. The pulanuan punaluan family included the same persons found in the previous sanguine consanguine, with the exception of own brothers and sisters, who were theoretically if not in every case excluded. [502, 503]

ad VII  Organization into gentes. Unter den Australian classes, the punaluan group is fond found on a broad and systematic scale; the people were also organized in gentes. Here the punaluan family older than the gens, because it rested upon classes which preceded the gentes. … The Turanian system requires both the punaluan family and the gentile organization to bring it into existence. [503]

ad X and XI Tendency to reduce the groups of married persons to smaller proportions before the close of savagery, because the syndyasmian family became a constant phenomenon in the Lower Status of Barbarism. Custom led the more advanced savage to recognize one among a number of wifes wives as his principal wife; this ripened in time into the custom of pairing, and in making this wife a companion and associate in the maintenance of family. … The old conjugal system, now reduced to narrower limits by the gradual disappearance of punaluan groups, still environed the advancing family, which it was to follow to the verge of civilization. … It finally disappeared into the new form of hetaerism, which still follows mankind in civilization as a dark shadow upon the family. … Syndyasmian family subsequent to the gens, which was largely instrumental in its production. From the Columbian Columbia River to the Paraguay, the Indian family was syndyasmian in general, punaluan in exceptional areas, u. monogamian perhaps in none. [503, 504]

ad XIV  It is impossible to overestimate the influence of property in the civilization of mankind. It was the power that brought the Aryan and Semitic nations out of barbarism into civilization. … Governments and laws are instituted with primary reference to its creation, protection and enjoyment. It introduced human slavery as an instrument in its production … With the establishment of the inheritance of property in the children of its owner, came the first possibility of a strict monogamian family.

ad XV  The Monogamian family: As finally constituted, this family assured the paternity of children, substituted the individual ownership of real as well as personal property for joint ownership, and an exclusive inheritance by children in the place of agnatic inheritance. Modern society reposes upon the Monogamian family. [505]

 Bei Morgan, S. 507: that body of eminent scholars
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Alle älteren Burschen
– darunter Sir Henry Maine – nehmen Hebrew u. Latin types (patriarchal family) an as producing the earliest organized society … damit hängt zusammen the hypothesis of human degradation to explain the existence of barbarians u. savages. Aber inventions u. discoveries came one by one; the knowledge of a chord cord must precede the bow and arrow, wie gunpowder the musket, steam engine the railway and steamship; so the arts of subsistence followed each other at long intervals u. human tools passed through forms of flint and stones before they were formed of iron. Ebenso institutions [506–508]



Part IV. (The Growth of the Idea of Property)

Ch. I. The three rules of inheritance.

»Earliest ideas  Zusatz von Marx.
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(!)
of property« intimately associated mit procurement of subsistence, the primary need. Die objects of ownership vermehren sich natürlich in jeder »successive ethnical period« mit der multiplication der arts wovon die Subsistenzmittel abhängen. Wachsthum v. Eigenthum hält so Schritt mit Fortschritt von Erfindungen u. Entdeckungen. Jede ethnische Periode zeigt so marked advance upon its predecessors, nicht nur in der Zahl der Erfindungen, sondern ebenso in variety and amount of property which resulted therefrom. The multiplicity of the forms of property would be accompanied by the growth of certain regulations with reference to possession and inheritance. The customs upon which these rules of proprietary possession and inheritance depend, are determined by the condition and progress of social organization. The growth of property is thus closely connected with the increase of inventions |21 and discoveries, and the improvement of social institutions which mark the several ethnical periods of human progress. (525, 526)

I) Property in the Status of Savagery.

Mankind, when ignorant of fire, without articulate language, and without artificial weapons … depended … upon the spontaneous fruits of the earth. Langsam u. fast unbemerkbar, in der Period of savagery, avanciren sie von Gebärdensprache u. unvollkommnen sounds to articulate speech; von dem club  Übersetzung von Marx.
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(Keule)
, als erster Waffe, zu spear pointed with flint, u. schliesslich zu arrow u. bow; von flint-knife u. -chisel to stone axe u. -hammer; von ozier  Übersetzung von Marx.
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(Korbweide)
u. cane basket to the basket coated with clay, which gave a vessel for boiling food with fire; and, finally, to the art of pottery.

In the means of subsistence, they advanced from natural fruits in a restricted habitat to scale and shell fish of the sea, and finally to bread roots and game.

 Bei Morgan, S. 526: Rope […] belong, with those previously named, to the Status of Savagery.
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Ferner im status von savagery developed: Rope
and string-making from filaments of bark; a species of cloth made of vegetable pulp; the tanning of skins to be used as apparel and as a covering for tents; finally the house constructed of poles and covered with bark, or made of plank split by stone wedges.   Bei Morgan, S. 526: Among minor inventions may be mentioned the
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Unter minor inventions zählt er neben
fire-drill  Bemerkung von Marx.
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(während umgekehrt alles zum Feuermachen Gehörige die Hauptinvention!)
, moccasin  Zusatz von Marx.
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(Indian word für Schuhe ohne Sohlen aus weicherm skin von deer etc)
, u. the snow-shoe. [526]

  Bei Morgan, S. 526/527: Before the close of this period, mankind had learned to support themselves in numbers in comparison with primitive times; they had propagated themselves over the face of the earth, and come into possession of all the possibilities of the continents in favor of human advancement.
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Während dieser Periode grosse Vermehrung der Menschen (im Gegensatz zum primitiven Zustand) auf Basis vermehrter ConsumtionsMittel, Ausbreitung derselben über die Continents.
In socialer Organization Fortschritt von consanguine horde zu tribes organized into gentes, so possessed of the germs of the principal governmental institutions. [526, 527]

Der entwickeltste Theil der savages, had finally organized gentile society u. developed small tribes with villages here and there … ihre rude energies and ruder arts chiefly devoted to subsistence; noch nicht the village stockade  Übersetzung von Marx.
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(Pfahlwerk)
for defence, no farinaceous food, still cannibalism. – Der progress was immense »potentially«, trug in sich die rudiments of language, government, family, religion, house architecture, property; ditto the principal germs of the arts of life. [527]

Property of savages inconsiderable; rude weapons, fabrics, ustensils, apparel, implements of flint, stone, and bone u. »personal ornaments« their chief items of property. Wenige Gegenstände des Besitzes, keine passion für Besitz; kein studium lucri, now such a commanding force in the human mind.

Lands owned by the tribes in common, while tenement-houses owned jointly by their occupants.

Die passion of possession nourished its nascent powers upon articles purely personal, increasing with the slow progress of inventions. Those esteemed most valuable deposited in the grave of the deceased proprietor for their his continued use in spirit-land.

Inheritance: its first great rule came in with the institution of the gens, which distributed the effects of a deceased person among his gentiles. Practically they were appropriated by the nearest of kin; but the principle general that the property should remain in the gens of decendent decedent, and be distributed among its members. ⦗Blieb in civilazt civilization. v. Greek,  Bei Morgan, S. 528: Latin
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Roman
gentes.
Children inherited from their mother, but took nothing from their reputed father. [527, 528]

II) Property in the Lower State of Barbarism.

Hauptinventions: art of pottery, finger weaving and the art of cultivation in America which gave farinaceous food (maize) u. plants by irrigation (in Eastern hemisphere beginning as equivalent: domestication of animals), keine great inventions. Finger weaving, with warp and woof  Übersetzung von Marx.
Schließen
(Kette u. Einschlag)
scheint dieser Periode anzugehören, ist eine der greatest inventions; but it cannot be certainly attained affirmed that the art was not attained in savagery.

The Iroquois u. other tribes of America in the same status manufactured belts u. burden-straps with warp and woof of excellent quality and finish; using fine twine made of filaments of elm and basswood bark.  Zusatz von Marx.
Schließen
(basswood americ. Linde)
Principles dieser Erfindung, which since clothed the human family, were perfectly realized; but sie were unable to extend it to the production of the woven garment.

Picture writing seems to have made its first appearance in this period; wenn früheren Ursprungs, erhielt es jetzt sehr beträchtliche Entwicklung. Die series of connected inventions in this department:

1) Gesture Language or language of personal symbols. 2) Picture writing, or idiographic symbols.  Bemerkung von Marx zur eigenen Orientierung.
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3) (verte)
|22 3) Hieroglyphs, or conventional symbols. 4) Hieroglyphs of phonetic power, or phonetic symbols used in a syllabus. 5) Phonetic Alphabet or written sounds.

The characters on the Copan monuments apparently hieroglyphs of the grade of conventional symbols; beweisen, dass die American aborigines, who practised the 3 first forms, unabhängig auf Weg in direction of a phonetic alphabet. [528, 529]

Stockade as a means of village defence u. of a raw-hide shield als denfence defence gegen arrow, which had now become a deadly missile, of the several varieties of war-club, armed with an encased stone or with a point of deer-horn, scheinen zu dieser Periode zu gehören. Jedenfalls waren sie in common use among the American Indian Tribes in the Lower Status of Barbarism when discovered. Der Speer, pointed mit flint or bone kein customary weapon with the forest-tribes, though sometimes used; z. B. die Ojibwas used the lance or spear, She-mä’-gun, pointed with flint or bone. Bow u. arrow, und war-club Hauptwaffen der American Indians in diesem Status. [529, 530]

Einiger Fortschritt in pottery, nämlich im increased size der vessels produced u. in their ornamentation; the Creeks made earthen vessels von 2 to 10 gallons; die Iroquois ornamented their jars u. pipes mit miniature human faces attached as buttons; im ganzen blieb pottery extremely rude bis Ende dieser Periode.

Bemerkbarer Fortschritt in House architecture in size u. mode of construction.

Unter minor inventions: air-gun for bird shooting, wooden mortar for reducing maize to flour u. der stone mortar for preparing paints;

Earthen u. stone pipes, with the use of tobacco;

Bone and stone implements of higher grades, with stone hammers and mauls  Zusatz von Marx.
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(mauls sind heavy wooden hammers)
, the handle and upper part of the stone being encased in raw hide; and moccasins u. belts ornamented with porcupine quills.

Einige dieser Erfindungen wahrscheinlich geborgt from tribes in the Middle Status; denn es war durch diesen Process constantly repeated that the more advanced tribes lifted up those below them, as fast as the latter were able to appreciate and appropriate the means of progress. [530]

The cultivation of maize and plants gave the people unleavened bread, the Indian succotash  Zusatz von Marx.
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(Speise von grünem Mais u. Bohnen)
u. hominy  Zusatz von Marx.
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(Maismuss)
; tended also to Links von der Anstreichung, vertikal entlang dieser Zeilen, mit Tinte, Marginale von Marx: „Property“. Siehe Faksimile der S. 22.
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introduce a new species of property, cultivated lands or gardens.

Obgleich lands owned in common by a tribe, a possessory right to cultivated land was now recognized in the individual
, or in the group, which became a subject of inheritance. The group united in a common household were mostly of the same gens, and the rule of inheritance would not allow it to be detached from the kinship.[530]

 Zusatz von Marx. Siehe Faksimile der S. 22.
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Inheritance:
The property u. effects v. husband u. wife kept distinct, remained after their demise to in the gens wozu sie respective gehörten. Weib u. Kinder nahmen nichts von husband u. father u. vice versa. Starb unter den Iroquois ein Mann leaving wife and children, so wurde sein Eigenthum vertheilt unter seine gentiles so dass seine Schwestern u. deren children u. ihre his maternal uncles would receive the most of it; his brothers might receive a small portion. Starb a wife, leaving husband and children, so ihre effects geerbt von ihren Kindern, Schwestern, Mutter u. Mutterschwestern; die greater portion assigned to her children; in jedem Fall blieb property in der gens. Unter den Ojibwas die effects der Mutter vertheilt unter ihren Kindern, wenn alt genug to use them; sonst, od. in default of children, they went to her sisters, ihrer Mutter u. Mutterschwestern, to the exclusion of her brothers. Obgleich die Ojibwas had changed descent to the male line, the inheritance followed the rule which prevailed when descent was in the female line.

Die variety u. amount of property grösser als in savagery, aber noch nicht stark genug to develop a strong sentiment in relation to inheritance.

In dem distributionsmodus germ der 2nd great rule of inheritance, which gave the property to the agnatic kindred, to the exclusion of the remaining gentiles. Agnation and agnatic kindred assume jetzt descent in the male line; Princip selbes in beiden cases, aber the persons included – different. Mit descent in the female line, agnates Personen who can trace their descent through females exclusively vom |23 same common ancestor with the intestate; im andern Fall, who can trace their descent durch males exclusively. It is the blood connection of persons within the gens by direct descent, in a given line, vom selben common ancestor which lies at the foundation of agnatic relation.

Gegenwärtig unter advanced Indian tribes hat begun sich zu manifest repugnance gegen gentile inheritance; einige haben sie ganz über Bord geworfen u. exclusive inheritance in children substituirt. Evidence of this repugnance unter Iroquois, Creeks, Cherokees, Choctas, Menominees, Crows u. Ojibwas. [530–532]

In dieser älteren Periode of barbarism sehr bedeutende Abnahme of cannibalism; wurde aufgegeben als common practice; blieb als war practice in dieser u. der Middle Period. In dieser Form ward Cannibalism gefunden in den principal tribes der U. St., Mexico, u. Central America. Erwerbung v. farinaceous food Hauptmittel to extricate mankind von this savage custom.

I) u. II), status of savagery u. Lower Status of barbarism, diese 2 ethnischen Perioden, cover mindestens ⅘ der ganzen Existenz der Menschheit auf der Erde.

Im Lower Status beginnen die higher attributes of mankind sich zu entwickeln: Persönliche Würde, Beredsamkeit, religious sensibility, rectitude, manliness u. courage jetzt common traits of character, aber auch Grausamkeit, treachery u. fanaticism. Element worship in religion, with a dim conception of personal gods, and of a Great Spirit, rude verse making, joint-tenement houses, and bread from maize belong to this period. It produced also syndyasmian family u. confederacy of tribes, organized into phratries u. gentes. Die imagination, that great faculty so largely contributing to the elevation of mankind, was now producing an unwritten literature of myths, legends u. traditions, already become powerful stimulus upon the race. [532]

III) Property in the middle Status of Barbarism.

Die Evidence dieser Periode more completely lost than that of any other.

It was exhibited by the Village Indians of North and South America in barbaric splendour at the epoch of their discovery. [532]

Diese Epoche eröffnet in Eastern Hemisphere mit domestication of animals, in der Western mit der Erscheinung der Village Indians, living in large joint-tenement houses of adobe  Zusatz von Marx.
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(Luftziegel)
brick u., in some areas, of stone laid in courses.

Cultivation of maize u. plants by irrigation, which required artificial canals, u. garden beds laid out in squares, with raised ridges to contain the water until absorbed.

Ein Theil dieser Village Indians, when discovered, had made bronze, bringing them near dem Iron smelting process.

The joint-tenement house in the nature of a fortress, hatte intermediate position zwischen der stockades stockaded village of the Lower u. the walled city of the Upper Status. Als entdeckt no cities, in the proper sense of the word, in America.

In Kriegskunst kein grosser Fortschritt ausser in defence, durch die construction of great houses generally impregnable to Indian assault. Sie hatten erfunden: quilted mantles (escaupiles), stuffed with cotton, as a further shield against the arrow u. the two-edged sword (macuahuitl), each edge having a row of angular flint points imbedded in the wooden blade. They still used bow u. arrow, spear, war club, flint knives u. hatchets u. stone implements, obgleich they had the copper axe u. chisel, which for some reason came never into general use. [533]

Zu maize, beans, squashes u. tobacco nun added cotton, pepper, tomato, cacao u. the care of certain fruits. A bear beer was made by fermenting the juice of the maguey  Zusatz von Marx.
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(mexicanische Agave)
. Die Iroquois hatten jedoch ein ähnlich Getränk producirt durch fermenting maple  Zusatz von Marx.
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(Ahornart)
sap
.

Durch improved methods in the ceramic art produced earthen vessels of capacity to hold several gallons, of fine texture and superior ornamentation. Bowls, pots, water jars manufactured in abundance.

Discovery and use of the native metals, erst for ornaments, finally for implements and ustensils, wie copper axe and chisel, dieser Periode angehörig. Melting dieser metals in crucible, with the probable use of blow-pipe  Übersetzung von Marx.
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(Blaserohr, Pustrohr)
and charcoal, and casting them in moulds, the production of bronze, rude stone sculptures, the woven garment of cotton, (Hakluyt: Coll. of Voyages. III, 377), houses of dressed stone, ideographs or hieroglyphs cut on the grave-posts of deceased chiefsthe calendar for measuring time, the solstitial stone for marking the seasons, cyclopean walls, the domestication of the llama, of a species of dog, of the turkey and other fowls belong to same period in America.

A priesthood, organized in a hierarchy, distinguished by a customs costume; personal gods with idols to represent them, u. human sacrifices erscheinen zuerst in dieser Periode.|

24

Two large Indian pueblos, Mexico u. Cusco jetzt, containing über 20,000 inhabitants, number unknown in the previous period.

Aristocratic element in society, in feeble forms, among the chiefs, civil and military, through increased numbers under the same government, and the growing complexity of affairs. [533, 534]

Eastern hemisphere: we find its native tribes in dieser Periode mit domestic animals, yielding them a milk and meat subsistence, aber wahrscheinlich ohne horticultural u. farinaceous food.   Bei Morgan, S. 534: When the great discovery was made that the wild horse, cow, sheep, ass, sow and goat might be tamed, and, when produced in flocks and herds, become a source of permanent subsistence it must have given a powerful impulse to human progress
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Wild horse, cow, sheep, ass, sow; ihre Zähmung gab grossen Impuls; produced in herds u. flocks they become source of permanent progress
. Der effect wurde erst allgemein, sobald pastoral life established for the creation u. maintenance of flocks. Europa, als hauptsächlich Wald area, unadapted to the pastoral state; aber die grass plains of high Asia u. upon the Euphrates, the Tigris u. other rivers of Asia, natural homes der pastoral tribes. Thither they would naturally tend; there the remote Aryan ancestors found confronting like pastoral Semitic tribes.

Cultur v. cereals u. plants muss vorhergegangen sein ihrer migration von den grass plains in die Forestareas v. Westasien u. Europa. Diese Cultur forced upon them by the necessities of the domestic animals now incorporated into their plan of life. (Dies vielleicht nicht Fall bei den Celts)

Woven fabrics of flax and wool u. bronze implements u. weapons erscheinen in dieser Period auch in der oestlichen Hemisphäre.

To cross the barrier into the Upper Status of barbarism unentbehrlich metallic tools able to hold an edge and point; dazu nöthig Invention des process of Iron smelting. [534, 535]

 Zusatz von Marx. Siehe Faksimile der S. 24.
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Eigenthum:
Grosser Zuwachs v. personal property u. einige changes in the relations of persons to land. Das territorial domain gehörte noch der Tribus in common; aber a portion now set apart für support of the government, andrer für religious uses, u. noch wichtigere portion – das, wovon Volk seine Subsistenz bezog, divided unter the several gentes, or communities of persons who resided in the same pueblo. Niemand owned lands or houses in his own right mit Macht zu verkaufen u. übermachen in fee simple, wem er wollte. Individual ownership of houses and lands excluded by gemeinschaftliches Eigenthum on lands durch gentes od. communities of persons, joint-tenement houses u. mode of occupation by related families. [535, 536]

Rev. Sam. Gorman, Missionär unter den Laguna Pueblo Indians, in address to the Historical Society of New Mexico says:

the right of property belongs to the female part of the family, and descends in that line from mother to daughter. Their land is held in common, […] but after a person cultivates a lot he has personal claim to it, which he can sell to one of the community … Their women, generally, have control of the granary, are more provident than their Spanish neighbours about the future. Ordinarily they try to have a year’s provision on hands hand. It is only when two years of scarcity succeed each other, that Pueblos, as a community, suffer hunger.[“] Morgan p. 536, Note.

Possessory rights, existing in individuals or families, inalienable ausser durch inheritance to his or her gentile heirs. [536]

The Moqui Village Indians, ausser 7 large pueblos u. gardens, haben jetzt flocks of sheep, horses and mules u. considerable other personal property; manufacture earthen vessels of many sizes u. excellent quality, u. woolen blankets in looms u. mit yarn of their own production. Major J. W. Powell noticed the following case showing that dort still the husband acquires no rights over the property of the wife, or over the children of the marriage. A Zunian married an Oraybe woman, and had by her 3 children; er wohnte mit ihnen zu Oraybe, bis sie †. The relatives of his deceased wife ergriffen Besitz ihrer Kinder u. household property leaving [to] him his horse, clothing u. weapons, mit certain blankets, die ihm gehörten, nicht die seiner Frau. Er left the Pueblo mit Powell um nach Santa Fé zu gehn u. dann to return to his own people at Zuñi. – Women as well as men, not unlikely, had a possessory right to such rooms and sections of the pueblo houses as they occupied u. überliessen sie ihren next of kin, under certain regulations. [536, 537]|

25

The Spaniards (writers) have left the land tenure of the southern tribes in inextricable confusion. In unveräusserlichem common land, belonging to a community of persons sahn sie feudal estate, im chief the feudal lord, in people his vassals; sie sahen, dass das land owned in common; nicht die community ihrer owners selbst – die gens od. division of a gens. [537, 538]

Descent in the female line remained still in some of the tribes of Mexico u. Central America, während im andern, probably larger Theil, übergegangen in a descent in the male line; letztres caused durch den influence of property. Unter den Mayas descent was in male line, dagegen schwer zu bestimmen in welcher line bei Aztecs, Tezcucans, Tlacopans u. Tlascalans.

Unter den Village Indians probable descent in the male line with remains of the Archaic rule wie in the case of the office of Teuctli. Unter ihnen zu erwarten the second grand rule of inheritance which distributed the property among the agnatic kindred. With descent in the male line children of a deceased person at the head of the Agnates,  Bei Morgan, S. 538: and very naturally receive the greater portion of the inheritance. It is not probable that the third great rule, which gave an exclusive inheritance to the children of the deceased owner, had become established among them
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so dass sie die greater portion (unter den Agnates) erhielten, aber waren nicht exclusive heirs (mit Ausschluß der andern Magnaten Agnaten[)]
. [538]  Bei Morgan, S. 539: the American aborigines
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Die Americans
never entered last (Upper) Period of Barbarism. [539]

Ch. II (part IV) The three rules of inheritance continued.

 Bei Morgan, S. 539: The last great period of barbarism

Siehe das Inhaltverzeichnis am Anfang des Kapitels: Property in the Upper Status of Barbarism
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Upper Period of Barbarism
commenced in the Eastern Hemisphere.

Process of smelting Iron; trotz Bronze progress arrested durch want of a metal of sufficient strength and hardness for mechanical purposes; found zuerst in iron.  Bei Morgan, S. 539: The accelerated progress of human intelligence dates from this invention.
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Von da Fortschritt rapider.
[539]

IV) Property in the Upper Status of Barbarism.

Ende dieser Periode property in masses verallgemeinert – consisting in many kinds, held by individual ownership – durch settled agriculture, manufactures, local trade, foreign commerce; aber:

Old common tenure of lands had not given place, ausser in part, to Separateigenthum.

In diesem Status entsprang Slavery; it stands directly connected with the production of property. Out of it  Zusatz von Marx.
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(slavery)
came the patriarchal family of the Hebrew type u. the similar family der Latine Latin tribes under paternal power, wie auch a modified form of the same family unter den Grecian tribes.

Hence, namentlich aber von increased abundance of subsistence, through field agriculture, nations began to develop, zählten viele 1000nds unter one government, wo früher nur a few 1000nds. Struggle für die possession der most desirable territories intensified durch die localization of tribes in fixed areas, u. in fortified cities, mit dem increase der Volkszahl. Advanced Kriegskunst u. vermehrte die rewards of prowess. Diese changes indicate the approach of civilization. [540]

Ersten Gesetze der Griechen, Römer, Hebräer – nach Beginn der Civilization – verwandelten chiefly nur in legal enactments the results die ihre previous experience verkörpert hatte in usages u. customs.

Gegen Ende der  Bei Morgan, S. 541: Later Period of barbarism
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Upper Period of Barbarism
Tendenz zu 2 Formen von Ownership, nämlich, durch Staat u. durch Individuen. Lands, unter den Griechen, still held, einige durch die tribes in common, andre durch die phratry in common für religious uses, andre durch die gens in common, aber die bulk der lands had fallen under individual ownership in severalty. Zur Zeit Solon’s war Athenian society noch gentil, lands in general held durch individuals who had learnt to mortgage them. (Plut. in Solon c. XV. »Σεμνύνεται γὰρ Σόλων ἐν τούτοις, ὅτι τῆς τε προϋποκειμένης  Zusatz von Marx.
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(verpfändeten)
γῆς  Zusatz von Marx.
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ὅρους = die Marken, die der Schuldner bei Haus od. Acker setzen musste, worauf er Geld entlehnt hatte, mit einer Schrift, welche seinen Namen neben der Summe angab⦘

  [und darin stimmen auch die Gedichte besser überein,] / worin Solon sich rühmt, daß er von den zuvor verpfändeten Gütern / Die zahlreich aufgesteckten Marken weggetilgt; / Und sie, vordem in Knechtschaft, frei geworden […] (Übers. Johann Gottfried Klaiber.)

Die Übersetzung und die Erläuterung in Klammern übernimmt Marx von: Plutarch’s Werke. (Griechische Prosaiker in neuen Uebersetzungen.) Vergleichende Lebensbeschreibungen. Übers. von J[ohann] G[ottfried] Klaiber [et al.]. Bdchen. 1–24. (Bdchen. 1–19, 37–41 der Werke.) Stuttgart 1827–1859. Bd. 2. S. 244, Fn. Marx besaß, wenn nicht sämtliche, so doch zumindest die ersten der zehn vor 1849 erschienenen, jeweils von Klaiber übersetzten Bändchen der „Lebensbeschreibungen“. (Siehe auch das von Roland Daniels 1850 zusammengestellte Verzeichnis seiner 1849 in Köln zurückgelassenen Bücher (MEGA² IV/5. S. 301.4). Dort sind „Plutarch 4 Bde“ erwähnt.)
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ὅρους ἀνεῖλε πολλαχῆ πεπηγότας·
πρόσθεν δὲ δουλεύουσα, νῦν ἐλεύθερα.«)

The Roman tribes, from their first establishment, had a public domain, Ager romanus; while lands were held by the curia for religious uses, by the gens, u. by individuals in severalty. Nachdem diese social corporations ausgestorben, the lands held by them in common gradually became private property.

Diese several forms of ownership show dass die älteste land tenure was die in common durch den tribe; nach Beginn ihrer Cultivation, ein Theil der tribe lands divided unter die gentes, jede wovon held their portion in common; diesem folgten im Lauf der Zeit allotments to individuals u. diese allotments finally ripened into individual ownership in severalty. [540–542]|

26

Personal property, generally, was subject to individual ownership.

Monogamian family erschien in Upper Status of barbarism herausentwickelt aus Syndyasmian family; hing intimately zus. mit increase of property u. usages in respect to its inheritance. Descent changed to the male lineaber alles Eigenthum, real u. personal, blieb, wie seit time immemorial, hereditary in gens. [542]

 Zusatz von Marx auf der linken Seite der Marginalie. Siehe Faksimile der S. 26.
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Ilias
In der Ilias (V, 20 90) mentioned fences around cultivated fields, (IX, 577) an enclosure of 50 acres (πεντηκοντόγυος) half for vines, remainder for tillage, XIV (121) (XIV, 121) Tideus Tydeus lives in a mansion rich in resources, and had corn producing fields in abundance.

 Kommentar von Marx.
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(Morgan irrt sich, wenn er glaubt, das blosse fencing beweise Privatgrundeigenthum)
Breeds of horses already distinguished for particular excellence.  Bei Morgan, S. 542, Fn. 4: v, 265.
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(V, 261 266, 267)
„sheep of a rich man standing countless in the fold.“ (IV, 433)

Coined money unknown, daher trade noch by barter, wie in folgenden lines:

» Dort nun kauften des Weins die hauptumlockten Achaier:
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Ἔνθεν ἄρ’ οἰνίζοντο (οἰνίζω: in medium Wein kaufen) κάρηκομόωντες Ἀχαιοὶ
,
 [Die Einen] brachten Erz, und Andere blinkendes Eisen,
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Ἄλλοι μὲν χαλκῷ (aere), ἄλλοι δ’ αἴθωνι (splendido) σιδήρῳ,
 Andere dann Stierhäut’, und Andere lebende Rinder,
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Ἄλλοι δὲ ῥινοῖς (pellibus), ἄλλοι δ’ αὐτοῖσι βόεσσιν,
 Andere Gefangene der Schlacht […] (Übers. Johann Heinrich Voß.)

Morgan (S. 542) zitiert nach: The Iliad of Homer. Literally transl., with explanatory notes, by Theodore Alois Buckley. London 1854. S. 134. Marx fügt den griechischen Wortlaut hinzu, zitiert nach der Ausgabe, die er selbst besaß: Homeri Opera omnia ex recensione et cum notis Samuelis Clarkii. Accessit varietas lectionum ms. Iips. et edd. veterum cura Io. Augusti Ernesti, qui et suas notas adpersit. Vol. 1–5. Lipsiae 1759–1764. Vol. 1. S. 332. (Siehe Marx’ Notizbuch aus den Jahren 1844 bis 1847 (MEGA² IV/3. S. 6.27) und den Katalog der Bibliothek von Marx, zusammengestellt von Roland Daniels (MEGA² IV/5. S. 301.28); der Verbleib des Exemplars ist nicht bekannt.)

(οἰνίζω: in medium Wein kaufen): Zusatz von Marx. Siehe Valent[in] Christ[ian] Friedr[ich] Rost: Griechisch-Deutsches Wörterbuch für den Schulgebrauch. 3. ganz umgearb. Aufl. Bd. 1.2. Erfurt, Gotha 1829. Bd. 2. S. 142 (Οἰνίζω […] Med. Wein kaufen …); 4. Aufl. Bd. 2. Braunschweig 1852. S. 142 (οἰνίζω […] Med. sich Wein durch Tauschhandel erkaufen, χαλκῷ, Il. 7, 472, überh. sich Wein holen od. herbeischaffen, Il.). (Marx besaß Rosts „Griechisch-Deutsches Wörterbuch“. Siehe MEGA² III/13. Br. 30.96; MEGA² IV/18. S. 13.31).

(aere) […] (splendido) […] (pellibus): Marx zog hier die lateinische Übersetzung heran, die in seiner Ausgabe der Werke Homers auf jeder Seite unter dem griechischen Text beigefügt war.
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ἄλλοι δ’ ἀνδραπόδεσσι
.« (Il. l. VII v. 472–75; )
[Zusatz von Marx. Siehe Faksimile der S. 26.]
Erz
hier Eisen
Felle = wine.

(III Aequivalentform

wo wine = Geld.)

; u. wine = Erz od. Eisen od. Felle od. Ochsen
Sklaven  Zusatz von Marx. Im ersten Band des „Kapital“ nennt Marx die zweite Aequivalentform „Zweite […] Form des relativen Werths“ und die dritte Aequivalentform „Dritte […] Form des relativen Werths“ (siehe MEGA² II/5. S. 35 und 36).
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(II Equivalentform)

Gold in bars named as passing by weight and estimated by talents. (Il. XII, 274,  Zusatz von Marx. Morgans Verweis auf XII, 274 ist fehlerhaft. Soll sein: XIX, 247.
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v. Morgan citirt; steht da nicht.)
Mentioned: manufactured articles of gold, silver, brass and iron, textile fabrics of linen and woolen in many forms, houses, palaces etc. [542, 543]

 Zusatz von Marx auf der linken Seite der Marginalie.
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Inheritance:
Nach Erreichung so grosser Quantität in Upper Status of Barbarism v. houses u. lands, flocks u. herds, u. exchangeable commodities and held by individual ownership question of inheritance pressed  Bei Morgan, S. 543: until the right was placed upon a basis which satisfied the growing intelligence of the Greek mind
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bis right den facts entsprach
. Die domestic animals a possession of greater value than alle früheren Arten property zusammen; served for food, exchangeable for commodities, usable for redeeming decaptives, for paying fines, and in religious sacrifices; capable of indefinite multiplication in numbers – their possession revealed to the human mind the first conception of wealth. Folgte in course of time the systematical cultivation of the earth, tending to identify the family mit dem soil, and render it a property-making organization; fand bald expression in Latin, Grecian, Hebrew tribes, in the patriarchal family, involving slaves u. servants. Labor of father and children became more and more incorporated with the land, the production of domestic animals, and the creation of merchandise, it tended to individualize the family u. suggested the superior claims of children to the inheritance of the property they had assisted in creating. Vor der Landkultur flocks u. herds fiel naturally under the joint ownership of persons united in a group, on a basis of kin, for subsistence. Agnatic inheritance was apt to assert itself in this condition. Aber sobald land had become the subject of property, and allotments to individuals had resulted in individual ownership, was sure to supervene upon agnatic inheritance: Third great rule of inheritance, giving property to the children of the deceased owner. [543, 544]

When field culture bewiesen hatte, dass die ganze Oberfläche der Erde could be made the subject of property owned by individuals in severalty u. Familienhaupt became the natural center of accumulation, the new property career of mankind inaugurated; fully done before the close of the Later Period of Barbarism; übte einen grossen Einfluss auf human mind, rief new elements of character wach;  Bei Morgan, S. 544: the feeble impulse aroused in the savage mind had now become a tremendous passion in the splendid
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property became tremendous passion im
barbarian des heroic age.  Bemerkung von Marx. „Booty and beauty“ war die Losung der britischen Streitmacht, die im britisch-amerikanischen Krieg im Dezember 1814 auf New Orleans vorstieß. Der Befehlshaber der siegreichen amerikanischen Truppen, General Andrew Jackson, präsentierte sich daher im Präsidentschaftswahlkampf 1828 als „protector & defender of beauty and booty“. 1861 spielte der Slogan auch in der Kriegspropaganda der Südstaaten eine Rolle – den Yankees gehe es nur um „booty and beauty“.
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(»booty and beauty«)
Dagegen nicht haltbar archaic u. later usages.  Kommentar von Marx. Siehe Achille Loria: La rendita fondiaria e la sua elisione naturale. Milano, Napoli, Pisa 1880. S. 682/683. Marx hatte dieses Buch Anfang Dezember 1879 vom Verfasser erhalten. Er hatte damals einige bibliographische Notizen daraus entnommen und ein paar Auszüge gemacht (IISG, Marx-Engels-Nachlass, Sign. B 161, S. 1 und 7/8). Zu seiner Einschätzung des Buchs siehe seinen Brief an Engels vom 3. August 1882 (IISG, Marx-Engels-Nachlass, Sign. L 4754).
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⦗Herr Loria! voilà the working of passion!⦘
Monogamy had assured the paternity of |27 children u. maintained u. asserted their exclusive right to inherit the property of their deceased fathers. [544]

Germans, when discovered, in Upper Status of Barbarism, used iron, in limited quantities; had flocks and herds; cultivated cereals; manufactured coarse textile fabrics of linen and woolen, had not attained [to] the idea of individual ownership in lands. Folgt daher: individual property in land unknown in Asia u. Europe in Middle Period of Barbarism, came in in  Bei Morgan, S. 544: during the Later Period
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Upper Period
.

Bei Hebrew tribes individual ownership in lands existed before the commencement of their civilization. They came out of barbarism, wie die Aryan tribes, mit possession of domestic animals u. cereals, iron u. brass, gold and silver, fictile wares u. textile fabrics. Aber ihre knowledge of field agriculture limited in Zeit Abrahams. Nach Reconstruction der Hebrew Society, nach dem Exodus, on basis of consanguine tribes, to which on reaching Palestine territorial areas were assigned, shows that civilization found them under gentile institutions, below a knowledge of political society. Inheritance was strictly in the phratry u. probably in the gens „the house of the father“ … After children had acquired an exclusive inheritance, daughters succeeded in default of sons; marriage would then transfer their own property from their own gens to that of their husband, unless some restraint, in the case of heiresses, was put on the right. Presumptively u. naturally marriage within the gens prohibited; question came before Moses as a question of Hebrew inheritance, vor Solon as a question of Athenian inheritance, the gens claiming a paramount right to its retention within its membership; u. beide entschieden in demselben Sinn. Same question must have turned up in Rome u. in part met by the rule that a marriage of a female worked a diminutio capitis u. with it a forfeiture of agnatic rights. [544–546]

Andre question involved in this issue: war marriage to be restricted by the rule forbidding it within the gens, or become free, the degree, and not the fact of kin, being the measure of limitation Ausrufezeichen von Marx.
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!
Letztre Lösung siegte. [546]

Zelophelad Zelophehad starb, liess Töchter, keine Söhne u. die inheritance given to the former. Später diese Töchter about to marry ausserhalb the tribe of Joseph, wozu sie belonged; the members of the tribe objected to such a transfer of property, brachten Sache vor Moses.

 Zusatz von Marx. Bei Morgan, S. 546: saying
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Diese Burschen präsentiren die Sache so
:

„If they be married to any of the sons of the other tribes of the children of Israel, then shall the inheritance be taken from the inheritance of our fathers, and shall be put to the inheritance of the tribe whereunto they are received: so shall it be taken from the lot of our inheritance.“ (Numbers, XXXVI, IV III)  Moses. Ausdruck von Marx. Bei Morgan, S. 546: The Hebrew lawgiver admits this right in the language of his decision.
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Mouses
antwortet:

„The tribe of the sons of Joseph has spoken well. This is the thing which the Lord doth command concerning the daughters of Zelophehad, saying, „Let them marry to whom they think best: only to the family of the tribe of their father shall they marry. So shall not the inheritance of the children of Israel remove from tribe to tribe: for every one of the children of Israel shall keep himself to the inheritance of the tribe of his fathers. And every daughter that possesseth an inheritance in any tribe of the children of Israel shall be wife unto one of the family of the tribe of her father, that the children of Israel may enjoy every one the inheritance of his fathers.“ ( Siehe: Die Bibel.
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Numbers, XXXVI, 5–9
) They were required to marry into their own phratry, not necessarily into their own gens. The daughters of Zelophehad were „married to their father’s brother’s sons“ ( Siehe: Die Bibel.
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Numbers XXXVI, II XXXVI, 11
) who were not only members of their own phratry, but also to of their own gens; they were also their next agnates. [546, 547]

Früher hatte Moses etablirt die rule of inheritance u. reversion thus:

„And thou shalt speak to the children of Israel, saying, If a man die and have no son, then you shall cause his inheritance to pass unto his his daughters. And if he have no daughter, then you shall give his inheritance unto his brothers. And if he have no brethren, then you shall give his inheritance unto his father’s brethren. And if his father have no brethren, then you shall give it unto his kinsman, that is next to him of his family, and he shall possess it.“  Siehe: Die Bibel.
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(Numbers, XXVII, 8–11
)

Hier heirs: 1) the children; aber scheint that the sons took the property subject to the obligation of maintaining the daughters. Wir finden elsewhere that the eldest son had a double portion.

2) the agnates in their order of nearness: a) the brethren of the deceased, in default of children des Verstorbnen; u., wenn er keine brethren hatte b) the brethren of the father of the deceased.

3) the gentiles, also in the order of nearness „the kinsman that is next to him of his family“. The „family of the tribe“ is the analogue of the phratry; also property, in default of children u. agnates, went to the nearest phrator des defunct owner, – diese Erbfolge excludes cognates von inheritance; a phrator, more distant than a |28 father’s brother, would inherit in preference to the children of a sister of the deceased. Descent in the male line and the property must be hereditary in the gens. The father did not inherit from his son, nor the grandfather from his grandson. Hierin u. fast in allem übrigen Mosaic Law agrees mit dem Law of Twelve Tables. [547, 548]

Später the Levitical law established marriage upon a new basis, independent of gentile law; verbot Ehe innerhalb gewisser Grade v. consanguinity u. affinity, declared it free beyond these degrees; dies entwurzelte gentile usages mit Bezug auf Ehe bei den Hebräern, wurde später the rule of Christian nations. [548]

Solon’s Gesetze über inheritances substantiell selben wie die von  Bei Morgan, S. 548: Moses
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Mouses
. Beweist, dass die früheren usages, customs, institutions der Hebräer u.  Bei Morgan, S. 548: Athenians
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Griechen
dieselben in Bezug auf Eigenthum. In Solon’s Zeit, 3d great rule of inheritance fully established unter Atheniensern; sons took the estates ihres deceased father mit obligation of maintaining the daughters u. apportioning them suitably for on their marriage. Wenn no sons, erbten die Töchter equally; dadurch created heiresses (ἐπικλήρες) by investing women mit estates; Solon enacted that the heiress should marry her nearest male agnate, although they belonged to the same gens, and Ehe unter ihnen früher verboten durch usage. Instances occurred wo der nächste Agnat, obgleich verheirathet, put away his wife, in order to marry the heiress, and thus gain the estate. Protomachus im Eubulides des Demosthenes Beispiel. (Demost. against Eubulides, 41) Wenn keine children, estates to the agnates, in their default to the gentiles des defunct. Property was retained within the gens as inflexibly among the Athenians wie unter Hebrews u. Romans. Solon turned into law, was vorher established usage. [548, 549]

  Bei Morgan, S. 549: The progressive growth of the idea of property is illustrated by the appearance of testamentary dispositions established by Solon.

Klammern und Fragezeichen von Marx.
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Unter Solon erscheinen testamentary dispositions (established ? by him);
Plutarch sagt es sei früher nicht erlaubt gewesen.  Zusatz von Marx.
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(Romulus: 754–717 a.C., 1–37 der Stadt Rom; Solon Gesetzgeber Athen’s about 594 a.C.)

  Auch das Gesetz wegen der Vermächtnisse erhielt vielen Beifall. Vorher waren diese gar nicht gestattet, sondern Haus und Vermögen des Verstorbenen mußten durchaus bei dem Geschlechte bleiben. Solon erlaubte, wenn keine Kinder da wären, das Seinige nach Belieben zu vermachen, gab der Freundschaft den Vorzug vor der Verwandtschaft, der Liebe den Vorrang vor der Natur, und machte dadurch das Vermögen erst zum Eigenthum des Besitzers. (Übers. Johann Gottfried Klaiber.)
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»Εὐδοκίμησε δὲ κἀν τῷ περὶ διαθηκῶν νὼμῳ νόμῳ· πρότερον γὰρ οὐκ ἐξῆν, ἀλλ’ ἐν τῷ γένει τοῦ τεθνηκότος ἔδει τὰ χρήματα καὶ τὸν οἶκον καταμένειν, ὁ δ’ ᾧ βούλεταί τις ἐπιτρέψας, εἰ μὴ παῖδες εἶεν αὐτῷ, δοῦναι τὰ αὑτοῦ, φιλίαν τε συγγενείας ἐτίμησε μᾶλλον καὶ χάριν ἀνάγκης, καὶ τὰ χρήματα κτήματα τῶν ἐχόντων ἐποίησεν(Plut. Vita Solon. c. 21)
[549]

This law recognized the absolute individual ownership of property by the person while living, to which jetzt added testamentar. Verfügung, when no children da; aber das gentile right remained paramount so long [as] children existed to represent him in the gens. At all events muss die custom früher dagewesen sein (testamentliche), da Solon in positive law – customary law verwandelte. [549, 550]

Roman Law of 12 tables, first promulgated 449 a. Ch.; durch sie anerkannt:

Intestaterbrecht:  Die Erbschaften intestat Verstorbener kommen nach dem Zwölftafelgesetz zuerst auf die sui heredes. (Übers. Friedrich Wilhelm Konrad Beckhaus.)
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»Intestatorum hereditate hereditates lege XII tabularum primum ad suos heredes pertinet pertinent.« (Gajus, inst., III, 1)
(mit den children war wife des defunct coheiress)   Ist gar kein suus heres da, dann kommt die Erbschaft zufolge desselben Zwölftafelgesetzes auf die Agnaten. (Übers. Friedrich Wilhelm Konrad Beckhaus.)
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»Si nullus sit suorum heredum, tunc hereditas pertinet ex eadem lege XII tabularum ad agnatos.« (Gaj. III, 9)
  Ist auch kein Agnat da, so ruft dasselbe Zwölftafelgesetz die Gentilen zur Erbschaft. (Übers. Friedrich Wilhelm Konrad Beckhaus.)
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»Si nullus agnatus sit, eadem lex XII tabularum gentiles ad hereditatem vocat.« (ib. III, 17)
Seems a reasonable inference dass hereditas wirklich grade in der umgekehrten Ordnung primitiv bei den Römern existirt hatte als in den 12 Tafeln; inheritance by gentes vor der der Agnaten; die der Agnaten vor der exclusiven der Kinder. [550]

In der later Period of Barbarism kam Aristocratie auf, durch Entwicklung der individuality of persons, increase of wealth now possessed by individuals in masses; slavery, by permanently degrading a portion of the people, tended to establish contrasts of condition unknown in the previous ethnical periods; dazu, with property and official position – schuf sentiment of aristocracy, antagonistisch den democratical principles fostered by the gentes.

Im Upper Status of Barbarism, the office of chief in its different grades, originally hereditary in the gens and elective among its members, passed, very likely, unter Grecian u. Roman tribes von father to son as a rule. Aber keine evidence, dass so by hereditary right.|

29

Die  Zusatz von Marx.
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blosse
possession jedoch der offices of archon, phylo-basileus or βασιλευς βασιλεύς unter den Griechen, u. v. princeps u. rex unter den Römern, hatte Tendenz to strengthen in their families the sentiment of aristocracy. Obgleich es permanent existence gewann, nicht stark genug to change essentially the democratic constitution of the early governments of these tribes. [551]

Heutzutag, wo property so immense u. seine forms so diversified, it has become, on the part of the people, an unmanageable power. »The human mind stands bewildered in the presence of its own creation. The time will come, nevertheless, when human intelligence will rise to the mastery over property … A mere property career is not the final destiny of mankind. The time which has passed away since civilization began is but a fragment  Zusatz von Marx.
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(u. zwar sehr kleines)
of the past duration of man’s existence; and but a fragment of the ages yet to come. The dissolution of society bids fair to become the termination of a career of which property is the end and aim; because such a career contains the elements of self-destruction … It (a higher  Bei Morgan, S. 552: plane
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plan
of society)  Marx bezieht sich auf diesen Satz im Februar 1881 im ersten Entwurf seines Briefs an Vera Ivanovna Zasulič (MEGA² I/25. S. 220). Engels zitiert den gesamten Absatz (bei Morgan, S. 552) in deutscher Übersetzung, ohne die Auslassungen und Ergänzungen von Marx, im „Ursprung“ (MEGA² I/29. S. 114).
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will be a revival, in a higher form, of the liberty, equality and fraternity of the ancient gentes
.« (552)

»With one principal principle of intelligence and one physical form, in virtue of a common origin, the results of human experience have been substantially the same in all times and areas in the same ethnical status.« (552)



Part II (Growth of the Idea of Government.) [p. 47]

Ch. I. Organization of Society upon the Basis of sex.

Organization into male and female classes (also organization upon the basis of sex) now found in full vitality among the Australian aborigines. Low down in savagery community of husbands and  Bei Morgan, S. 49: wives
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women
, within prescribed lines, was the central principle of the social system: the marital rights (jura conjugialia) ⦗Romans distinguish: connubium, related to marriage as a civil institution, u. conjugium, the mere physical union) established in the group. ⦗Emancipation von diesen »rights« etc slowly accomplished durch movements resulting in unconscious reformations; »worked out unconsciously through natural selection«.[49, 50]

In Darling River District – north of Sydney – die nachfolgende organization into classes on the basis of sex and the inchoate organization into gentes on the basis of kin unter den Australian aborigines speaking the Kamilaroi language. Wide spread selbiges unter other Australian tribes; evident from internal considerations, that the male u. female classes older than the gentes, die, among the Kamilaroi, are in process of overthrowing the classes. The class in its male and female branches is the unit of the social system u. the central position, während die gentes inchoate u. advancing to completeness through encroachments upon the former. Selbe Organization upon sex not yet been found under savage tribes out of Australia, weil diese  Bei Morgan, S. 51: islanders
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insular savages
slowly developing in their secluded habitat,  Bei Morgan, S. 51: and the more archaic character of the organization upon sex than that into gentes, suggests the conjecture, that the former may have been universal in such branches of the human family as afterwards possessed the gentile organization.
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die most archaic (organized) form am längsten erhalten haben.
[50, 51]

The Kamilaroi divided in 6 gentes, standing with relation to maritime marriage in 2 divisions:

I) 1) Iguana (Duli) II) 4) Emu (Dinoun)
2) Kangaroo (Murriira). ⦗Padymelon, a species of Kangaroo⦘ 5) Bandicoot (Bilba)
3) Opossum (Mute) 6) Blacksnake (Nurai)

Ursprünglich die ersten 3 gentes not allowed to intermarriage with each [other], weil sie waren subdivisions of one original gens, durften aber marry into either of the other gentes u. vice versa. Dies nun modified unter den Kamilaroi, aber nicht so weit dass marriage erlaubt mit allen gentes ausser dem gens des individual. Absolute prohibition for males or females to marry into their own gens. Descent in female line, which assigns children to the line of their mother. These features of archaic form of gens.

Aber ausserdem existirt weitere u. ältere division des people in 8 classes, 4 exclusively of males u. 4t 4 exclusively of females. It is accompanied with a regulation in respect to marriage and descent which [obstructs] the gens (zeigt, dass deren organization later[)]Marriage is restricted to a portion of the males of one gens with a portion of the females of another gens, während in entwickelter gentile organization members of each gens allowed to marry persons of the opposite sex in all the gentes except their own.|

30

Die Klassen sind:

Male Female
1) Ippai 1) Ippata
2) Kumbo 2) Buta
3) Murri 3) Mata
4) Kubbi 4) Kapota

 Zusammenfassung von Marx.
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Alle Glieder, je einer der 4 männlichen Klassen, sind, of whatever gens they may be, Brüder v. einander, so alle Ippais Brüder etc, weil alle supposed descended from a common female ancestor.

Ebenso alle Glieder je einer der 4 weiblichen Klassen Schwestern v. einander for same reason (descent from common mother), to whatever gens they may belong.

Ferner all Ippais u. Ippatas Brüder u. Schwestern von einander, ob sie nun children der same mother or collateral consanguinei,  Bei Morgan, S. 53: The Kumbos and Butas are brothers and sisters; and so are the Murris and Matas, and the Kubbis and Kapotas respectively. If an Ippai and Ippata
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ebenso verhält es sich für die folgenden mit denselben numbers bezeichneten Klassen. If a Kumbo u. Buta
meet, die sich nie vorher gesehn, begrüssen sie sich als Bruder u. Schwester. Die Kamilaroi sind also organized in 4 great primary groups of brothers and sisters, each group being composed of a male and female branch, but intermingled over the areas of their occupation. The classes embody the germ of gens, so far as z. B. Ippai u. Ippata in fact a single class in 2 branches bilden u. not can intermarry with each other; aber keine realisirte Gens, weil sie fall unter 2 names (wie Ippai u. Ippata), each of which is integral for certain purposes, u. weil their children take different names from their own. [51–53]

Die classes stand to each other in a different order with respect to right of marriage or rather cohabitation (since brothers and sister sisters are not allowed to intermarry), viz. so:

 Numerierung von Marx.
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1)
 Ippai
can marry  Numerierung von Marx.
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4)
 Kapota,
and no other Später – as shown hereafter, dies scheme so far modified, that each class of males gets right of intermarriage mit an additional class of females; dies encroachment von gens upon class.
 Numerierung von Marx.
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2)
 Kumbo
  "  "  Numerierung von Marx.
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3)
 Mata
  "  "
 Numerierung von Marx.
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3)
 Murri
  "  "  Numerierung von Marx.
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2)
 Buta
  "  "
 Numerierung von Marx.
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4)
 Kubbi
  "  "  Numerierung von Marx.
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1)
 Ippata
  "  "

Each male in the selection of a wife so limited to ¼ of all the Kamilaroi wifes wives. Theoretisch jede Kapota the wife of every Ippai. Quotes  Siehe L. Fison: Australian aborigines. Appendices [zu Lewis H[enry] Morgan: Australian kinship]. In: Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Nr. 8. 1873. S. 429–438.
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Rev. Fison quotes
von a letter of Mr. T. E. Lance (der lange in Australien gelebt): „if a Kubbi meets a stranger Ippata, the they address each other as Goleer = Spouse … A Kubbi thus meeting an Ippata, even though she were of another tribe, would treat her as his wife, and his right to do so would be recognized by her tribe.“

Under this conjugal system ¼ aller males united in marriage mit ¼ aller females of the Kamilaroi tribes. [53, 54]

Während die Kinder blieben in gens ihrer Mutter, gingen sie über in eine andre Klasse, in selber gens, different from that of either parent.

Male Female Male Female
 Numerierung von Marx.
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1)
 Ippai marries
 Numerierung von Marx.
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4)
 Kapota;
their children are  Numerierung von Marx.
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3)
 Murri
u.  Numerierung von Marx.
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3)
 Mata
 Numerierung von Marx.
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2)
 Kumbo
"  Numerierung von Marx.
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3)
 Mata
  "  "  "  Numerierung von Marx.
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4)
 Kubbi
u.  Numerierung von Marx.
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4)
 Kapota
 Numerierung von Marx.
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3)
 Murri "
" "  Numerierung von Marx.
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2)
 Buta " " "
 "  "  "  Numerierung von Marx.
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1)
 Ippai
u.  Numerierung von Marx.
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1)
 Ippata
 Numerierung von Marx.
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4)
 Kubbi
" "  Numerierung von Marx.
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1)
 Ippata " " "
 "  "  "  Numerierung von Marx.
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2)
 Kumbo
u.  Numerierung von Marx.
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2)
 Buta.

Folgt man der female line, so Kapota (4) ist die Mutter of Mata (3) u. Mata (5) ist hinwiederum die Mutter of Kapota; ebenso Buta (2) Mutter von Ippata (1) u. hinwiederum Ippata (1) die Mutter von Buta (2). Selbes mit male class; da aber descent in the female line, leiten sich die Kamilaroi tribes selbst ab von 2 supposed female ancestors, which laid the foundation for 2 original gentes. – By tracing the descents still further found that the blood of each class passes through all classes.

Obgleich jedes Individuum einen der oben erwähnten class names führt, so daneben the single personal name common among savages as well as barbarous tribes. [55]

The gentile organization supervened naturally upon the classes as a higher organization, by simply enfolding them unchanged, encroaches then upon them.|

31

The classes are in pairs von brothers u. sisters derived from each other u. die gentes, vermittelst der classes, sind auch in pairs wie folgt:

Gentes Male Female Male Female
1) Iguana all are Murri u. Mata oder Kubbi und Kapota
2) Emu  " " Kumbo u. Buta oder Ippai u. Ippata
3) Kangaroo  " " Murri und Mata od. Kubbi u. Kapota
4) Bandicoot  " " Kumbo u. Buta oder Ippai u. Ippata.
5) Opossum  " " Murri u. Mata oder Kubbi u. Kapota
6) Blacksnake  " " Kumbo u. Buta od. Ippai u. Ippata

The connection of children with a particular gens is proven by the law of marriage. So Iguana-Mata must marry Kumbo; her children are Kubbi u. Kapota, u. nothwendig Iguana in gens, because descent in the female line. Iguana-Kapota must marry Ippai, her children are Murri u. Mata u. ditto Iguana in gens. So Emu-Ippata must marry Kubbi, her children are Kumbo u. Buta u. of the Emu gens. So die gens maintained by keeping in its membership the children of all its female members. Ebenso mit den remaining gentes. Each gens is made up theoretically of 2 supposed female ancestors, and contains 4 of the 8 classes. Wahrscheinlich ursprünglich nur 2 male u. 2 female classes, set opposite to each other in respect to the right of marriage; and that the 4 afterward subdivided into 8. The classes evidently as an anterior organization nachher arranged within the gentes, not formed by the subdivision of the gentes.

Da die Iguana, Kangaroo u. Opossum gentes are counterparts to each other in the classes they contain, so subdivisions of an original gens; ebenso andrerseits Emu, Bandicoot u. Blacksnake; so 2 original gentes mit dem right in each to marry into the other, but not in itself. Dies confirmed durch das fact, dass 1), 3), 5) originally nicht intermarry durften unter einander, ebensowenig wie 2), 4), 6). When the three were one gens intermarriage unter ihnen verboten; dies followed the subdivisions, because they were of the same descent, although under different gentile names. Dasselbe exact gefunden bei den Seneca-Iroquois. [55–57]

Da marriage restricted to particular classes, when there were but 2 gentes, one half of all the females of one were the wives of one half of all the females males of the other. After their subdivision into 6 the benefit of marrying out of the gens was neutralized by the presence of the classes mit ihren restrictions; hence continuous in-and-in marriages, beyond the immediate degree of brother and sister.

z. B. descents of Ippai u. Kapota giving to each intermediate pair 2 children, a male and a female, dann:

1) Ippai marries Kapota; their children Murri u. Mata. Die letztern 2 können nicht einander heirathen.

2) Murri marries Buta … their children: Ippai u. Ippata;
Mata marries Kumbo … their children: Kubbi u. Kapota;

3) Ippai marries his cousin Kapota u. Kubbi marries his cousin Ippata; their children are respectively Murri u. Mata u. Kumbo u. Buta; von diesen die Murris marry the Butas, second cousins, etc. In this condition the classes not only intermarry constantly, but are compelled to do so through this organization upon sex. – The organization into classes seems to have been directed to the single object of breaking up the intermarriage of brothers and sisters. – Innovation: allowing each triad of gentes to intermarry with each other, to a limited extent; and secondly, to marry into classes, not before permitted[.] So Iguana-Murri can now marry Mata in the Kangaroo gens, his collateral sister etc. Each |32 class of males in each triad of gentes seems now to be allowed one additional class of females in the 2 remaining gentes of the same triad, from which they were before excluded. [57, 58]

Wherever the middle or lower  Bei Morgan, S. 59: stratum
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statum
of savagery is uncovered, marriages of entire groups under usages defining the groups, have been discovered … the necessities of their condition would set a practical limit to the size of the group living together under this custom. [59]

»Cases of physical and mental deterioration in tribes and nations must be admitted, for reasons which are known, but they never interrupted the general progress of mankindThe arts by which savages maintain their lives are remarkably persistent. They are never lost until superseded by others higher in degree. By the practice of these arts, and the experience gained through social organizations, mankind have advanced under a necessary law of development, although their progress may have been substantially imperceptible for centuries … tribes and nations have perished through the disruption of their ethnic life.« (p. 60) Among other tribes (non-Australian) the gens seems to have advanced in proportion to the curtailment of the conjugal system. [60]

»We have the same brain, perpetuated by reproduction, which worked in the skulls of barbarians and savages in by-gone ages; and it has come down to us ladened and saturated with the thoughts, aspirations and passions, with which it was busied though through the intermediate periods. It is the same brain grown older and larger with the experiences of the ages … Outcrops of barbarism  Bei Morgan, S. 61: some of the excrescences of modern civilization, such as Mormonism, are seen to be relics of the old savagism not yet eradicated from the human brain. – Morgan dürfte sich besonders auf die von den Mormonen damals gelehrte und praktizierte Polygamie beziehen.
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(wie z. B. Mormonism)
are so many revelations of its ancient proclivities … a species of mental avatism atavism.« (61)



P. II Ch. II The Iroquois Gens.

Aelteste organization – social, founded upon gentes, phratries, tribes; so gentile society created, wo government dealt with persons through their relations to a gens or tribe. These relations purely personal. Kömmt nachher a political organization, founded upon territory u. property; hier government deals with persons through their relations to territory, wie z. B. the township, the county, and the state. (62)

Gentile Organization found in Asia, Europe, Africa, America, Australia; dauert bis political society, die erst mit der Civilization eintritt. Irish Sept, Scottish Clan, die phrara der Albanians, ganas des Sanscrit etc selbes was American Indian gens.

Gens, γένος u. ganas (lat. gr. Sansk.) bedeuten alike kin; enthalten dasselbe Element as gigno, γίγνομαι, ganamai (beget alle 3); implying an immediate common descent of the members of a gens. A gens daher a body of consanguinei. Descended from the same common ancestor, distinguished by a gentile name, and bound together by affinities of blood. It includes a moyety moiety only of such descendants; wo descent in female line, wie überall in archaic period, gens zusammengesetzt of a supposed female ancestor and her children, with the children of her female descendants, through females, in perpetuity; umgekehrt, wo descent in the male line, into which the female line was changed after the appearance of property in masses. Der moderne Familienname ist selbst a survival of the gentile name, with descent in the male line. The modern family, as expressed by its name, is an unorganized gens; with the bond of kind kin broken, and its members as widely dispersed as the family name is found. Final form of gens enthält two changes: 1) change from female to male line of descent; 2) change of the inheritance of the property of a deceased member from his gentiles to his agnatic kindred u. finally to his children. [62–64]

Gens in its archaic form now exists among the American aborigines. [65]

Wo gentile institutions prevailed – and prior to the establishment of political society – we find peoples or nations in gentile societies, and nothing beyond. »The state did not exist.« (p. 67) As the gens, the unit of organization, was essentially democratical, so necessarily the phratry composed of gentes, the tribe composed of phratries, and the gentile society formed by the confederation or  Zusatz von Marx. Siehe Morgan, S. 66.
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(was höhere Form)
coalescencing coalescing of tribes. ⦗ Zusatz von Marx. Siehe das Inhaltsverzeichnis von Kapitel XII am Anfang von Morgans Buch, S. XIII.
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wie die 3 röm. in Rom
, the 4 tribes of the Athenians in Attica, the 3 Dorian tribes in Sparta, all of them on some common territory[66, 67]

In der archaic form der gens die children einer Frau gehören zu ihrer gens; ebenso die children ihrer Töchter, Grosstöchter etc aber die children ihrer Söhne, deren Grosssöhne etc belong to other gentes, nämlich denen ihrer Mütter. In the Middle Status of Barbarism (mit Syndyasmian family) began die Indian tribes to change the female line to the male; selbes im Upper Status of Barbarism bei Greek tribes (except the Lycians), u. den Italian tribes (except the Etruskans). [67, 68]|

33

Intermarriage in Gens prohibited. Die Gensinstitution beginnt nothwendig mit 2 gentes; the males and females of one gens marrying the females and males of the other; the children, following the gentes of their respective mothers, would be divided between them. Resting on the bond of kin as its cohesive principle, gens verleiht jedem individual member that personal protection which no other existing power could give. [69]

Gentes of the Iroquois taken as standard exemplification in der Ganowánian family. When discovered the Iroquois in the lower status of barbarism; manufactured nets twine and rope from filaments of bark; wove belts and burden straps, with warp and woof, vom selben Material; machten earthern vessels u. pipes von clay mixed with siliceous materials u. hardened by fire, some of them ornamented mit rude medallions; cultivated maize, beans, squashes u. tobacco in garden beds, made unleavened bread von pounded maize which they boiled in earthern vessels (these loaves or cakes about 6 inches in diameter u. an inch thick); tanned skins into leather with which they manufactured kilts, leggins u. moccasins; used bow and arrow and warclub als Hauptwaffen; used flint, stone u. bone implements, wore skin garments, were expert hunters u. fishermen.  Constructed long joint-tenement houses large enough to accommodate 5, 10, 20 families u. each household practised communism in living; were unacquainted mit the use of stone or adobe-brick in house architecture u. mit dem use der native metals. In mental capacity u. general advancement waren they der representative branch der Indian family north of New Mexico. Military „their career was simply terrific. They were the scourge of God upon the aborigines of the Continent.[69, 70]

In lapse of time number u. names der respective gentes have slightly varied, their largest number being 8.

I) Senecas:

1) Wolf. 2) Bear. 3) Turtle. 4) Beaver. 5) Deer. 6) Snipe. 7) Heron. 8) Hawk.

II) Cayugas:

1) Wolf. 2) Bear. 3) Turtle. 4) Beaver. 5) Deer. 6) Snipe. 7) Eel. 8) Hawk.

III) Onondagas:

1) Wolf. 2) Bear. 3) Turtle. 4) Beaver. 5) Deer. 6) Snipe. 7) Eel. 8) Ball.

IV) Oneidas. 1) Wolf. 2) Bear. 3) Turtle.
V) Mohawks. 1) Wolf. 2) Bear. 3) Turtle.
VI) Tuscaroras.

1) Gray Wolf. 2) Bear. 3) Great Turtle. 4) Beaver. 5) Yellow Wolf. 6) Snipe. 7) Eel. 8) Little Turtle.

Die Changes zeigen, dass certain gentes in some of the tribes became extinct u. dass andre formed by segmentation of overfull gentes. [70]

Das jus gentilicium besteht [in]:

1) The right der gens of electing its sachem und chiefs.

Fast bei allen American Indian tribes 2 grades of chiefs, sachem u. common chiefs; von diesen 2 primary grades all other grades were varieties; elected in each gens from among its members, a son could not be elected to succeed his father, wo descent in the female line, weil er belonged to a different gens. Office of Sachem hereditary in the gens, insofern it was filled so oft als a vacancy occurred; office of chief non-hereditary, weil bestowed in reward of personal merit u. died with the individual. Duties of Sachem confined to peace, konnte nicht in Krieg ziehn as a Sachem. The chiefs, raised to office for personal bravery, wisdom in affairs, or for eloquence in council, gewöhnlich die superior class in ability, aber nicht in authority over the gens. The relation des Sachem was primarily to the Gens, wovon er the official head; die des Chief primarily to the tribe, – von dessen council er wie der Sachem members. [71, 72]

The office of Sachem älter als gens, gehört ebenso zu punaluan group or even the anterior horde. In the gens the duties of this office paternal; in the gens elective among its male members. Dem Indian system of consanguinity entsprechend office of Sachem passed von brother zu brother, or from uncle to nephew u. sehr selten von grandfather to grandson. The choice, by free suffrage of both males and females of adult ages, fiel gewöhnlich auf einen Bruder des deceased Sachem od. einen der Söhne einer Schwester; sein eigner Bruder od. der Sohn einer eignen Schwester meist preferred. Zwischen several brothers, own or collateral, on the one hand u. den sons of several sisters, own or collateral, on the other, no priority of right, da alle male members der gens equally eligible.

Hatte die gens einen gewählt (Sachem) (unter den Seneca-Iroquois z. B.), so noch erfordert assent der 7 remaining gentes. These met for the purpose by phratries; wenn sie die Wahl to confirm verweigerten, musste die gens neu wählen; wurde er accepted, so election complete; aber der neue Sachem musste still »be raised up« (i.e. invested with his office), durch a council of the confederacy, before he could enter upon  Bei Morgan, S. 73: its duties
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his duty
; it was their method of conferring the imperium.|

34

Der Sachem of a gens was ex officio a member of the council of the tribe, and of the higher council of the confederacy. Selbe Method of election u. confirmation for the office of a chief; aber a general council never convened to raise up chiefs below the grade of a sachem; they awaited the time when sachems were elected. [72, 73]

Chiefs in each gens usually proportioned to the number of its members; unter den Seneca-Iroquois 1 chief for about every 50 persons; der Seneca nun in New York einige 3000, haben 8 Sachems u. about 60 chiefs; the proportionate number jetzt grösser als früher. Anzahl der gentes in a tribe meist entsprechend der Bevölkerungszahl des tribe; die Zahl der gentes varies in different tribes von 3 unter Delawares u. Munsees to über 20 unter Ojibwas u. Creeks; 6, 8, 10 waren gewöhnliche Anzahlen. [73]

2) Recht Sachems u. Chiefs abzusetzen.

Dies Recht reserved by the members of the gens; office nominally »for life«, tenure practically »during good behaviour«. Die installation eines Sachem hiess: „putting on the horns“, seine Absetzung „taking off the horns“. Sobald ein Sachem od. chief in due form abgesetzt durch gens, war er von nun Privatperson. Council of the tribe konnte auch Sachems u. chiefs absetzen, ohne zu warten auf action der gens, and even against its wishes. [74]

3) Obligation not to marry in the gens.

Diese rule noch inflexible bei den Iroquois. – Bei Entstehung der gens brothers were intermarried to each other’s wives in a group, and sisters to each other’s husbands in a group; gens sought to exclude brothers and sisters from the marriage relation by prohibiting to marry in the gens. [74, 75]

4) Mutual rights of inheritance of the property of deceased members der gens.

Im Status of Savagery property beschränkt auf personal effects; im Lower Status of Barbarism kamen noch hinzu possessory rights in joint-tenement houses u. gardens. The most valuable personal articles buried mit body des deceased owner.

Im übrigen: property to remain in the gens and to be distributed among the gentiles des deceased owner. Dies theoretisch noch rule bei den Iroquois; praktisch the effects einer deceased person appropriated by his nearest relations within the gens. In case of a male his own brothers and sisters and maternal uncle uncles divided his effects amongst each other; in the case of a female her property inherited by her children u. her sisters, to the exclusion of her brothers. In beiden Fällen blieb property in gens. Deshalb nahm husband nichts von wife u. vice versa. These mutual rights of inheritance strengthened the autonomy of the gens. [75, 76]

5) Reciprocal obligations of help, defense, and redress of injuries.

Individual depended for security upon his gens; bond of kin powerful element for mutual support; to wrong a person was to wrong his gens. Herrera: „History of America“ erzählt von den Mayas of Yukatan: wo satisfaction to be made for damages, if he [who was] adjudged to pay was like to be reduced to poverty, the kindred  Zusatz von Marx.
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(gens)
contributed; selbe sagt v. Florida Indians: Stirbt ein Bruder od. Sohn, so verhungern eher the people of the house than seek anything to eat during 3 months, aber kindred u. relations send it all in. Persons, removing von one village to an other another, could not transfer their possessory right to cultivated lands or to a section of a joint-tenement house to a stranger; must leave them to his gentile kindred. Herrera refers to this usage under the Indian tribes of Nicaragua.

Garcilasso de la VegaRoyal Commentaries Lond. ed. 1688, Rycaut’s Trans. p. 107⦘ bemerkt über die tribes der Peruvian Andes, dass „when the commonalty, or ordinary sort, married, the communities ( = gentes) of the people were obliged to build and provide them houses.“

The ancient practice of blood revenge … had its birthplace in the gens. Tribunals for the trial of criminals and laws prescribing their punishment, came late into existence in gentile society. Unter den Iroquois and other Indian tribes generally, the obligation to avenge the murder of a kinsman universally recognized. Vorher Beilegungsversuch zwischen gens of the slayer u. gens des slayed slain; a council of the members of each gens held separetely, propositions made on behalf of the murderer for a condonation of the act meist in Form of expression of regret u. presents of considerable value;  Zusammenfassung von Marx.
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zog das alles nicht
, weil gentile kindred der slain person implacable, so ernannte die gens (des slain) unter ihren members one or more avengers, die den criminal to pursue, until discovered, and then to slay him wherever he might be found. If they did so, this no ground of complaint by any member of the gens of the victim. [76–78]

|35 6) The right of bestowing names upon the members of the gens.

Unter savage u. barbaric tribes there is no name for the family. The personal names von individuals derselben family indicate no family connection between them. ⦗family name ist nicht älter als die Civilization⦘ Indian personal names, however, usually indicate the gens of the individual to persons of other gentes in the same tribe. As a rule each gens had names for persons that were its special property, and, as such, could not be used by other gentes of the same tribe. A gentile name conferred of itself gentile rights.

After birth of the child his mother selected for him a name, not in use, belonging to the gens, with the concurrence of her nearest relatives. The child not fully christened until its birth u. the name of its father, had been announced at the next ensuing council of the tribe. Bei Tod einer Person, konnte deren Namen Name nicht wieder used werden in the life-time of his oldest surviving son, without the consent of the latter. ⦗Dies wie alles particulare, wenn nicht direct Gegentheil gesagt, gilt von den Iroquois

Zwei classes of names in use, one adapted to childhood, the other to adult life; one „being taken away“ (ihre expression) u. der andre „bestowed“. Im Alter v. 16 od. 18 der erste Name weggenommen, usually durch a chief der gens u. einer der 2ten Klasse statt dessen gegeben. At the next council of the tribe the change of names was publicly announced, after which the person, if a male, assumed the duties of manhood. In some Indian tribes the youth was required to go out upon the war-path and earn his second name by some act of personal bravery. After a severe illness nicht ungewöhnlich for a person, from superstitious considerations, to solicit and obtain a second change of name. When a person was elected a Sachem od. a chief, his name was taken away, and a new one conferred at the time of his installation.

Das Individual had no control over the question of a change; was prerogative der female relatives u. der chiefs; but an adult person might change his name provided he could induce a chief to announce it in council. A person having the control of a particular name, wie der eldest son of that of his deceased father, might lend it to a friend in another gens; but after the death of the person thus bearing it the name reverted to the gens to which it belonged. The names jetzt in use unter den Iroquois u. andern Indian tribes meist ancient names handed down in the gentes from time immemorial.

In familiar intercourse u. formal salutation the American Indians address each other by the term of relationship the person spoken to sustains to the speaker. When related they salute by kin; wenn nicht, they substitute „my friend“. Gälte für lümmelhaft to address an Indian by his personal name, or to inquire his name directly from himself.  Bei Morgan, S. 80: Our Saxon ancestors
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Anglo-Saxons Saxon ancestors der »English«
hatten bis Norman Conquest nur single personal names, no name to designate the family. Zeigt an späte Erscheinung der Monogamie; u. Existenz in früherer Periode von a Saxon gens. [78–80]

7) The right of adopting strangers into the gens.

Captives taken in war either put to death, or adopted into some gens;  Bei Morgan, S. 80: Women and children taken prisoners usually experienced clemency in this form
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letztres mit women u. children, taken prisoners, usual
. Adoption not only conferred gentile rights, sondern auch die nationality of the tribe.

The person adopting a captive placed him or her in the relation of a brother or a sister; if a mother adopted, in that of a son or a daughter; and ever afterwards threated treated the person in all respects as though born in that relation.

Slavery, which in the Upper Status of Barbarism became the fate of the captive, was unknown among tribes in the Lower Status in the aboriginal period. Captives when adopted were often assigned in the family the places of deceased persons slain in battle, in order to fill up the broken ranks of relatives. Ausnahmsweise declining gens so replenished, z. B. at certain time die Hawk gens der Senecas so much thinned, dass dem Erlöschen nah; to save the gens, a number of persons from the Wolf gens by mutual consent were transferred in a body by adoption to that of of the Hawk. Das Adoptionsrecht left to the discretion of each gens. Unter den Iroquois die Adoptionsceremonie performed at a public council of the tribe, wodurch turned practically in a religious right rite. [80, 81]

8) Religious  Bei Morgan, S. 81: Religious rites in the gens. Query.
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rights rites
in the Gens?

Kann kaum gesagt werden, dass any Indian gens had special religious rites; aber their religious worship [had] mehr od. minder direct connection with the gentes; religious ideas germinated u. forms of worship instituted in gens, expanded from the gens over the |36 tribe, statt special to remain to the gens. So bei den Iroquois 6 annual religious festivals ⦗Maple, Planting, Berry, Green-Corn, Harvest u. New Year’s Festivals⦘ common to all the gentes united in a tribe, observed at stated seasons of the year.

Jede gens furnished a number of „Keepers of the Faith“, male and female, charged mit celebration jener festivals; conducted in selben die ceremonies zus. mit den Sachems u. Chiefs der Tribes who, ex officio[,] „Keepers of the Faith“. With no official head, none of the marks of a priesthood, their functions equal. Die „female keepers of the faith“ bes. charged mit preparation of the feast, provided at all councils at the close of each day for all persons in attendance; was a dinner in common. – Their worship was one of thanksgiving, with invocations des Great Spirit u. der Lesser Spirits to continue to them the blessings of life. (Cf. Morgan’s: League of the Iroquois, p. 182) [81, 82]

9) A common burial place.

Ancient – aber nicht exclusive – mode of burial: by scaffolding the body until the flesh had wasted, danach die bones collected u. preserved in bark barrels in a house constructed for their reception; die belonging zur selben gens usually placed in the same house. Rev. Dr Cyrus Byington found these practices unter den Choctas, 1827; so sagt AdairHist. of the Americ. Indians, p. 183⦘ von den Cherokees: „I saw three of them, in one of their towns pretty near each other … Each house contained the bones of one tribe separately, with the hieroglyphical figures of each family (gens) on each of the oddshaped arks.“ Die Iroquois in ancient times used scaffolds u. preserved the bones of deceased relatives in bark barrels, often keeping them in the house they occupied. They also buried in the ground; im letztern Fall die same gens not always buried locally together, unless they had a common cemetery for the village.  So bei Morgan, S. 83. Soll sein: Asher Wright.
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Rev. Ashur Wright
, a missionary among the Senecas, wrote to Morgan: „I find no trace of the influence of clanship in the burial places of the dead … buried promiscuously … they say that formerly the members of the different clans more frequently resided together than they do at present time. As one family they were more under the influence of family feeling, and had less of individual interest.“

At the Tuscarora reservation (near Lewiston), obgleich die Tuscaroras now »Christians«, hat tribe one common cemetery, aber die individuals of the same gens – of Beaver, Bear, Gray Wolf etc [–] are buried in a row by themselves. Dort husbands u. wives separated u. buried in separate rows; ebenso fathers u. their children; aber found in the same row mothers and their children u. brothers u. sisters.

Unter den Iroquois u. andern Indian tribes in same status of advancement, bei dem funeral of a deseased gentilis, all the members of the gens are mourners; die addresses at the funeral, the preparation of the grave, u. the burial of the body were performed by members of other gentes.

Die Village Indians v. Mexico u. Central America, practiced a  Bei Morgan, S. 84: slovenly
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slow
cremation ⦗confined to chief and principal men⦘, ebenso scaffolding u. burying in the ground. [83, 84]

10) A Council of the Gens.

The Council – instrument of government u. supreme authority über gens, tribe, confederacy. Ordinary affairs adjusted durch die chiefs; those of general interest submitted to the determination of the council u. der council sprang from the gentile organization – the Council of Chiefs; its history, gentil, tribal, u. confederate, bis political society intervened, changing Council in Senat.

Simplest u. lowest form of the Council – that of the Gens; a democratic assembly, wo every adult male u. female member had a voice upon all questions brought before it; it elected u. deposed its sachems u. chiefs, ditto „Keepers of the Faith“, it condoned or avenged the murder of a gentilis, it adopted persons into the gens. It was the germ of the higher council of the tribe, and of that still higher of the confederacy, each of which was composed exclusively of chiefs as representatives of the gentes.|

37

So dies bei Iroquois u. selbe Rechte der gentes der Grecian u. Latin tribes ⦗save Punkt 1, 2, 6, deren ancient existence doch presumirt werden muss⦘. [84, 85]

All the members of an Iroquois gens personally free, bound to defend each other’s freedom; equal in privileges u. personal rights; Sachem u. chiefs claiming no superiority; a brotherhood bound together by the ties of kin. Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity, though never formulated, were cardinal principles der Gens u. diese die unit of a social u. governmental system, the foundation, worauf Indian society organized. Erklärt sense of independence u. personal dignity universally an attribute of Indian character.

Zur Zeit der europäischen Entdeckung waren die American Indian tribes generally organized into gentes, with descent in the female line; in einigen Tribes, wie den Dacotas, the gentes had fallen out; in andern, wie unter Ojibwas, den Omahas u. Mayas of Yucatan, descent has changed from female to male line. Throughout aboriginal America die gens nahm ihren Namen von some animal, or inanimate object, never from a person; in this early condition of society, the individuality of persons was lost in the gens; die gentes der Grecian u. Latin tribes in der relativ späten Periode wo sie under historical notice kommen, were (bereits) named after persons. In einigen der tribes, wie bei Moqui Village Indians of New Mexico, the members of the gens claimed their descent from the animal whose name they bore – their remote ancestors having been transformed by the Great Spirit von animal into human form.

Personenzahl der gentes varied: 3000 Senecas divided equally unter 8 gentes, would give an average v. 375 persons per gens.
15,000 Ojibwas divided unter 23 gentes 650 persons per gens.
Cherokees would average more than 1000 to a gens.

In der present condition der Haupt Indian tribes Personenzahl in jeder gens would range v. 100 to 1000.

Except the Polynesian, every family of mankind seems to have come under the Gentile organization. [85–87]

Pt. II. Ch. III. The Iroquois Phratry.

The phratry (φρατρία) a brotherhood, a natural growth from the organization into gentes; an organic union or association of 2 or more gentes of the same tribe for certain common objects. These gentes were usually such as had been formed by the segmentation of an original gens.

Unter den Grecian gentes phratry nearly as constant as the gens; jeder der 4 tribes der Athenians organized in 3 phratries, each composed of 30 gentes; also 4 tribes = 12 phratries = 360 gentes, od. 4 tribes = 4 × 3 phratries = 4 × 3 × 30 gentes. Solch numerisch symmetrische Organisation beweist, dass später [mit] Gesetz herumgearbeitet an der gegebnen division Division v. tribes in phratries u. phratries in gentes. All the gentes of a tribe – as a rule – of common descent u. bearing a common tribal name. The phratric organization had a natural foundation in the immediate kinship of certain gentes as subdivisions of an original gens u. auf dieser basis auch die Grecian phratry originally formed. Das spätere legislative numerical adjustment der Athenian tribes in phratries u. gentes erheischte nur incorporation of alien gentes u. transfer by consent or constraint.

Von den functions der Grecian phratry wenig bekannt: observance of special religious rites; condonation or revenge of the murder of a phratror phrator; purification of a murderer er penalty of his crime escaped preparatory to his restoration to society. (  Und welche Weihflut seiner Zunft empfängt ihn wol? (Übers. Johann Heinich Voß.)
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»ποία δὲ χέρνιψ φρατέρων προσδέξεται« (Aeschylus, Eumenides, v. 656)
[)] In Athen überlebte diese institution die Errichtung of political society unter Cleisthenes; his its function: to look after the registration of citizens; wurde so guardian of descents u. of the evidence of citizenship. The wife upon her marriage was enrolled in the phratry of her husband u. die children der marriage were enrolled in the gens and phratry of their father. The phratry had still the duty to prosecute the murderer of a phrator in the courts of justice.  Bemerkung von Marx.
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(veränderte Form der Blutrache!)
Wären alle details known, we would probably find the phratry connected mit the common tables, the public games, the funerals of distinguished men, the earliest army organzition organization, and the proceedings of councils, as well as in observance of religious rites and the guardianship of social privileges.|

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Analogue of Greek phratry – the Roman curia.  In die griechische Sprache übersetzt wären diese Begriffe „Phyle“ [„Stammesgemeinschaft“] und „Trittys“ [„Drittel“] für Tribous und „Phratre“ [„Brudergemeinschaft“] und „Lochos“ [„Abteilung“] für Kourie (Übers. Nicolas Wiater.)
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»εἴη δ’ ἂν Ἑλλάδι γλώττῃ τὰ ὀνόματα ταῦτα μεθερμηνευόμενα φυλὴ μὲν καὶ τριττὺς ἡ τρίβους, φράτρα δὲ καὶ λόχος ἡ κουρία« (Dionys. l. II, c. VII; cf. l. II, c. 13)

Jede curia = 10 gentes [und 10 curiae] in each of the 3 Roman tribes, making 30 curiae u. 300 gentes; the curia entered directly into the [functions of] government. The assembly of the gentescomitia curiata – voted by curiae, each having one collective vote. This assembly the sovereign power of the Roman people down to Servius Tullius. [88–90]

 Bei Morgan, S. 90: The phratry existed in a large number of the tribes of the American aborigines, where it is seen to arise by natural growth, and to stand as the second member of the organic series
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Of organic growth the phratry der American aborigines, wo sie existirte under large number of tribes
; had no governmental functions, wie gens, tribe, confederacy; certain social functions, namentlich wichtig when the tribe was large. It presents the phratry in its archaic form and in its archaic functions.

 Numerierung von Marx.
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1)
The Eight gentes of the Seneca-Iroquois Tribes, reintegrated in 2 phratries.
Ist) Phratry. Gentes: 1) Bear. 2) Wolf. 3) Beaver. 4) Turtle.                                    
IInd) Phratry. Gentes. 5) Deer. 6) Snipe. 7) Heron. 8) Hawk.

De-ă-non-dă’-a-yoh (Phratry) bedeutet brotherhood. The gentes in the same phratry are brother gentes to each other, and cousin-gentes to those of the other phratry; die Senecas brauchen diese Ausdrücke when speaking of gentes in relation to the phratries. Originally marriage not allowed unter den members der same phratry, aber die Members je einer phratry konnten heirathen into any gens of the other. Dies Verbot  Zusatz von Marx.
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(die Heirath unter Gliedern derselben Phratry)
zeigt, dass die gentes of each phratry were subdivisions of an original gens, u. das Verbot to marry into one’s own gens had followed to its subdivisions. Diese Restriction war seit lang verschwunden, ausser mit Bezug auf marriage eines Individuums in seiner eignen gens. Tradition der Senecas, dass die Bär u. the Deer die original gentes, von denen die andern subdivisions. Also: natural foundation der phratrythe kinship of the gentes of which it was composed. After their subdivision from increase of numbers there was a natural tendency to their reunion in a higher organization for objects common to them all. Dieselben gentes nicht für immer constant in a phratry: wenn das equilibrium in their respective numbers disturbed, transfers of particular gentes from one phratry to the other occurred.

Mit increase of numbers in a gens, followed by local separation of its members, segmentation occurred, and the seceding portion adopted a new gentile name. Aber tradition of their former unity remained u. became the basis of their reorganization in a phratry. [90, 91]

 Numerierung von Marx.
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2)
Cayuga-Iroquois. 8 gentes unequally divided between 2 phratries.
Ist Phratry. Gentes. 1) Bear. 2) Wolf. 3) Turtle. 4) Snipe. 5) Eeel Eel.        
IInd Phratry. Gentes. 6) Deer. 7) Beaver. 8) Hawk.

Seven of these gentes selbe wie die der Senecas; the Heron gens verschwunden; Eeel Eel takes it its place, but transferred to the other side.  Bei Morgan, S. 91: The Beaver and the Turtle
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The Snipe u. Beaver
gentes also have exchanged fratries phratries. Die Cayugas nennen auch die gentes der same phratry »brother gentes«, die der opposite phratry »cousin gentes[«]. [91]

 Numerierung von Marx.
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3)
 Onondaga-Iroquois (8 gentes, unequally divided in phratries  wie bei Cayugas).
Ist Phratry. Gentes: 1) Wolf. 2) Turtle. 3) Snipe. 4) Beaver. 5) Ball.           
1nd IInd Phratry. Gentes. 6) Deer. 7) Eeel Eel. 8) Bear.

Hawk (bei den Cayugas) ersetzt durch Ball bei den Onondagas. Composition der Phratries different von der der Senecas. 3 der gentes in der 1st phratry selbe, aber Bear gens now found mit Deer.

Die Onondagas have no Hawk, the Senecas no Eel gens, aber fraternize when they meet, as connected with each other. [91, 92]

Die Mohawks u. Oneidas haben nur 3 gentes: 1) Bear. ; 2) Wolf; 3) Turtle; no phratries. Zur Zeit der Bildung der Confederation seven of the 8 Seneca gentes existed in the several tribes, as shown by the establishment of Sachemships in them; but the Mohawk u. Oneidas had only the 3 named; they had then lost an entire phratry, and one gens of that remaining – if  Die Ausrufezeichen von Marx. Bei Morgan, S. 92: it is assumed
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(!) it is supposed (!)
that the original tribes were once composed |39 of the same gentes.

When a tribe organized in gentes u. phratries subdivides, it might occur on the line of the phratric organization. Obgleich die members of a tribe intermingled throughout by marriage, each gens in a phratry is composed of females with their children and descendants through females, who formed the body of the phratry. Would incline to remain locally together, and thus might become detached in a body. Die male members of the gens married to women of other gentes and remaining with their wives would not affect the gens since the children of the males do not belong to its connexion. The gentes and phratries can be followed through every tribe. [92]

The Tuscarora-Iroquois wurden detachirt vom main stock in unbekannter Periode der Vergangenheit, bewohnten die Neuse-river region von North Carolina zur Zeit ihrer Entdeckung. Um 1712 verjagt aus dieser Area, removed to the country der Iroquois, were admitted in die Confederacy as 6th member.

Tuscarora-Iroquois. 2 Phratries v. 8 gentes.
Ist Phratry. Gentes. 1) Bear. 2) Beaver. 3) Great Turtle. 4) Eel
II Phratry. Gentes. 5) Gray Wolf. 6) Yellow Wolf. 7) Little Turtle. 8)Snipe.

Haben 6 gentes in common with Cayugas u. Onondagas, 5 mit Senecas, 3 mit Mohawks u. Oneidas. The Deer Gens, die sie einst besassen, extinct in modern times. Wolf gens now divided in 2, Gray u. Yellow; ebenso Turtle Gens verdoppelt in Great u. Little. 3 of the gentes in the first phratry the same with 3 in the 1st phratry der Senecas u. Cayugas,  Bei Morgan, S. 93: with the exception that the Wolf gens is double – Da zwar eine „Wolf gens“ bei den Tuscarora doppelt vorkam, aber in ihrer zweiten Phratrie, schloss Marx offenbar, dass Morgan, der sich auf die erste Phratrie bezog, die ebenfalls doppelt, einmal in der ersten und einmal in der zweiten Phratrie vorkommende „Turtle gens“ gemeint haben müsse.
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nur die Wolf Turtle gens double
. Da several 100 years zwischen separation der Tuscarora von u. return zu ihren congeners, Beweis of permanence in the existence of a gens. Wie bei den andern tribes, die gentes in der same phratry called brother gentes, die in the other cousin gentes. [92, 93]

Differences in the composition der Phratries zeigen ihre modification to meet changes of condition, (die die sie bildenden gentes befielen, wie Entvölkerung einiger, od. extinction etc) to preserve some degree of  Bei Morgan, S. 93: equality
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equilibrium
in the number of phrators in each. Phratric organization unter Iroquois von unvordenklicher Zeit, älter als the confederacy, established über 400 4 centuries ago. Im Ganzen die difference in their composition as to gentes small, beweist permanence der Phratry sowohl als der gens. Die Iroquois tribes hatten 38 gentes u. in 4 of the tribes a total of 8 phratries. [93, 94]

Unter den Iroquois die Phratry theils für social theils für religious objects.

 Numerierung von Marx.
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1)
Games, gewöhnlich bei tribal u. confederate councils. z. B. in ballgame der Senecas they play by phratries, eine gegen die andre, u. bet against each other upon the result of the game. Each phratry puts forwards its best players etc. Befor Before das Spiel beginnt, articles of personal property are hazarded upon the results durch members der opposite phratries, are deposited with keepers to abide the event.

 Numerierung von Marx.
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2)
At a council of the tribe the sachems and chiefs in each phratry usually seated on opposite sides of an imaginary Council-fire u. the speakers addressed the 2 opposite bodies as the representatives of the phratries.

 Numerierung von Marx.
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3)
Wenn murder committed erst council der gens des slain, dann council der gens des Mörders; aber gens of the criminal calls oft on die other gentes of their phratry (when the slayer u. the slayed belonged to opposite phratries), to unite with them to obtain a condonation of the crime. Dann hielt diese Phratry ein council u. addressed itself hierauf an die andre Phratry to which it sent a delegation with a belt of white wampum asking for a council of the phratry u. an adjustment of the crime. They offered reparation to the family u. gens des murdered in expressions of regret u. presents of value. Negotiations between the 2 councils, bis affirmative or negative Entscheidung erreicht. Influence einer phratry grösser als die einer gens u. by calling into action die opposite phratry condonation wahrscheinlicher, namentlich bei extenuating circumstances. Darum Grecian phratry (vor Civilization) übernahm main management of cases of murder u. also of purification des murderer wenn he escaped punishment; hence, nach Errichtung der polit. society, nimmt phratry die duty of prosecuting the murderer in the courts of justice. [94, 95]|

40

 Numerierung von Marx.
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4)
At funerals of persons of recognized importance – conspicuous functions der phratries (p. 95, 96). ⦗In the case of a defunct Sachem, the opposite phratry, not his own, sent immediately after the funeral, the official wampum-belt of the deceased ruler to the central council fire at Onondaga, as a notification of his demise. This was retained until the installation of his successor, upon whom it then bestowed as the insignia of his office.⦘

 Numerierung von Marx.
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5)
Phratry directly concerned in the election of sachems and chiefs of the several gentes. Hatte a gens successor ernannt für ihren deceased Sachem (od. elected a chief of the 2nd grade), so expected as a matter of course that the gentes of the same phratry would confirm the choice; aber manchmal opposition von Seiten der opposite phratry. Dadurch kam action of council of each phratry in’s Spiel.

 Numerierung von Marx.
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6)
Früher vor modern times had the Senecas »Medecine Medicine lodges«; letztere formed a prominent part of their religious system; to hold a Medicine Lodge was to observe their highest religious rites, and to practice their highest religious mysteries; they had 2 such organizations, one in each phratry; each was a brotherhood, into which new members were admitted by a formal initiation.

Unlike the Grecian phratry u. die Roman curia this Indian phratry had no official head; ebenso no religious functionaries belonging to it as distinguished von gens u. tribe. [97]

 Zusatz von Marx.
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M. betrachtet
die 4 „lineages“ of the Tlascalans who occupied the 4 quarters of the pueblo of Tlascala, als so many phratries (nicht als so many tribes, weil sie occupied the same pueblo and spoke the same dialect). Each „lineage“ od. phratry, had a distinct military organization, a peculiar costume u. banner, and its head war-chief (Teuctli) who was its general military commander. They went forth to battle by phratries.  The organization of a military force by phratries u. by tribes nicht unbekannt den homerischen Griechen. Nestor sagt zu Agamenon Agamemnon:

 Sondere rings die Männer nach Stamm und Geschlecht, Agamemnon; / Daß ein Geschlecht dem Geschlecht beisteh’ und Stämme den Stämmen. (Übers. Johann Heinrich Voß.)

Morgan zitiert hier (S. 98) nur in der englischen Übersetzung. Auf S. 237 zitiert er aber auch den griechischen Originaltext. Marx zitiert an der Stelle seines Exzerpts nicht erneut den griechischen Text und kommentiert nur: „(Siehe oben!)

Marx zitiert hier wahrscheinlich den griechischen Wortlaut nach der Ausgabe, die er selbst besaß: Homeri Opera omnia ex recensione et cum notis Samuelis Clarkii. Accessit varietas lectionum ms. Iips. et edd. veterum cura Io. Augusti Ernesti, qui et suas notas adpersit. Vol. 1–5. Lipsiae 1759–1764. Vol. 1. S. 88. (Siehe Marx’ Notizbuch aus den Jahren 1844 bis 1847 (MEGA² IV/3. S. 6.27) und den Katalog der Bibliothek von Marx, zusammengestellt von Roland Daniels (MEGA² IV/5. S. 301.28); der Verbleib des Exemplars ist nicht bekannt.)
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»Κρῖν’ ἄνδρας κατὰ φῦλα, κατὰ φρήτρας, Ἀγάμεμνον,
ὡς φρήτρη φρήτρη φρήτρηφιν ἀρήγῃ, φῦλα δεφύλοις δὲ φύλοις (Hom. Iliad. II, 362–363.)
[98]

Die Chocta gentes united in 2 phratries, the first called „Divided People“, containing 4 gentes; the second „Beloved People“, contains also 4 gentes. This separation of the people into 2 divisions by gentes created two phratries. – A tribe hat nie weniger als 2 gentes. The gens increases in number of its members, divides into 2; these again subdivide, and in time reunite in 2 or more phratries. These phratries form a tribe, and its members speak the same dialect. In course of time this tribe falls into several by process of segmentation, which in turn reunite in a confederacy. Such a confederacy is a growth, through the tribe and phratry, from a pair of gentes. [99]

Mohegan Tribe, had 3 original gentes, Wolf, Turtle, Turkey. Each of these subdivided, and the subdivisions became independent gentes, but they retained the names  Bei Morgan, S. 100: of the original gentes
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of the original subdivisions of each gens
as their respective phratric names, alias the subdivisions of each gens reorganized into a phratry. Dies beweist conclusively the natural process, wodurch, in course of time, a gens breaks up into several, u. diese remain united in a phratric organization which is expressed by assuming a phratric name.

Mohegan tribe, originally consisting aus 3 gentes, Wolf, Turtle, Turkey.
I) Wolf Phratry. 4 gentes. 1) Wolf. 2) Bear. 3) Dog. 4) Opossum.
II) Turtle " " 8 4 gentes. 5) Little Turtle. 6) Mud Turtle. 7) Great Turtle. 8) Yellow Eeel Eel.
III) Turkey " " 3 gentes. 9) Turkey. 10) Crane. 11) Chicken.

Selten unter den American Indian Tribes to find such plain evidence of the segmentation of gentes, followed by the formation into phratries of their respective subdivisions. Shows also that the phratry founded upon the kinship of the gentes. As a rule the name of the original gens out of which others had formed – unknown; but in each of these cases it remains as the name of the phratry. Der Name nur einer der 12 Athenian phratries known to us; die der Iroquois had no name but that of brotherhood. [100]

Pt. II Ch. IV The Iroquois Tribe.

American aborigines fallen in  Bei Morgan, S. 102: large number of independent tribes
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zahllose tribes
– by the natural process of segmentation; each tribe individualized by a name, a separate dialect, a supreme government, a territory, occupied and defended as its own. The dialects as numereous as |41 the tribes, for separation nicht complete, before dialectical variation had commenced. –   Bei Morgan, S. 103: In this chapter I will endeavor to point out the manner in which these numerous tribes were formed, and, presumptively out of one original people […] – Zum Verweis auf Eskimos siehe Morgan, S. 104 und 152 sowie Marx’ Notizen dazu.
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Morgan glaubt, dass all the numerous aboriginal American tribes, (minus Eskimos who no aborigines) formed out of one original people.

Der term Nation angewandt auf viele Indian tribes, trotz geringer Volkszahl, v. wegen exclusive possession of a dialect and of a territory. Aber Tribe u. Nations nicht genaue Equivalents; unter gentile institutions entspringt nation nur, wann die tribes, united under the same government, have coalesced into one people, wie die 4 Athenian tribes in Attica, 3 Dorian tribes in Sparta, 3 Latin u. Sabine tribes at Rome. Federation requires independent tribes in separate territorial areas; coalescence unites them by a higher process in the same area, obgleich tendency to local separation by gentes u. by tribes would continue. The confederacy is the nearest analogue of the nation.

Sehr selten Fälle unter den American aborigines, wo the tribe embraced peoples speaking different dialects; wo der Fall, war’s Resultat der Union eines schwächeren mit einem stärkeren tribe speaking a closely related dialect, wie die union der Missourisafter their overthrow – mit den Otoes. Der great body der aborigines ward gefunden in independent tribes; nur wenige hatten es gebracht zu confederacy of tribes speaking dialects of the same stock language. [102–103]

Constant tendency to disintegration existed in the elements of gentile organization, aggravated durch tendency to divergence of speech, inseparable from their social state and the large area of their occupation. A verbal language, obgleich merkwürdig persistent in its vocables u. noch mehr in its grammatical forms, – is incapable of permanence. Der lokalen Separation – in area – folgt im Lauf der Zeit variation in speech; dies leads to separation in interests u. to ultimate independence. Die grosse Zahl von dialects u. stock languages in Nord- u. Südamerika wahrscheinlich – save die Eskimos – abgeleitet von one original language, erheischten für ihre Bildung the time measured by 3 ethnic periods.

New tribes u. new gentes were constantly forming by natural growth; der process sensibly accelerated durch the great expanse des American continent. Die Methode war einfach. From some overstocked geographical centre, possessing superior advantages in the means of subsistence, a gradual outflow of people. Dies continued jährlich, so a considerable population developed at a distance vom original seat des tribe; im Lauf der Zeit die emigrants werden distinct in interests, strangers in feeling, schliesslich divergent in speech; separation u. independence follow, though their territories were contiguous. Dies repeated itself von age zu age in newly acquired as well as in old areasWhen increased numbers pressed upon the means of subsistence, the surplus removed to a new seat wo sie sich mit Leichtigkeit etablirten, weil the government was perfect in every gens u. in any number of gentes united in a band. [104]  Kommentar von Marx.
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⦗Dies was »organized colonisation«!⦘

Unter den Village Indians selber Process in etwas modificirter Form. When a village became overcrowded with members, a colony went up or down on the same stream u. commenced a new village; repeated at intervals, several such villages appear, each independent of the other and selfgoverning self-governing body; but united in a league or confederacy for mutual protection; dialectical variation finally springing up, completes their growth into tribes.

Tribes formed by the subdivisions of an original tribe possess a number of gentes in common u. speak dialects of the same language; have a number of [the same] gentes selbst nach centuries of separation. So die Hurons, jetzt Wyandots, haben 6 gentes desselben Namens mit 6 der gentes der Seneca-Iroquois, nach at least 400 J. Trennung. Die Potawattamies haben 8 gentes selben Namens mit 8 unter den Ojibwas, während die former 6 u. die letzteren 14 different haben; showing dass neue gentes formed in each tribe by segmentation seit ihrer Trennung. Ein noch älterer Absetzer der Ojibwas – oder eines common parent tribe beider – die Miamis, haben nur 3 gentes in common mit den former, Wolf, Loon u. Eagle. [105]

 Zwischentitel von Marx. Die Formulierung entnahm er dem Text von Morgan, S. 105.
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Illustrations from tribes in Lower State of Barbarism.

8 Missouri tribes, bei ihrer Entdeckung, occupy the banks des Missouri über 1000 miles, zus. mit den banks of its tributaries, the Kansas u. the Platte; ebenso the smaller rivers of Iowa; ebenso West Bank of Mississippi down to the Arkansas. Ihre dialects beweisen dass the people in 3 tribes before the last subdivisions, nämlich:

1) Punkas u. Omahas; 2) Iowas, Otoes u. Missouris; 3) Kaws, Osages, u. Quappas; ihre several dialects nearer to each other than to any other dialect der Dakotian stock language to which they belong; also linguistic necessity for their derivation von an original tribe, wovon sie subdivisions; spreading from a central point on the Missouri along its banks, above u. below; mit increase of distance between their settlements – separation in interests, followed by divergence of speech u. finally by independence. Extending along a river in a prairie country such a people might separate first in 3 tribes, dann in 8, the organization of each subdivision remaining complete. Division meant a separation into parts by natural expansion over a larger area, followed by a complete segmentation. Der uppermost |42 tribe on the Missouri – the Punkas at the mouth of the Niobrara river; the lowermost the Quappas at the mouth of the Arkansas on the Mississippi, near 1500 miles between them. The intermediate region, confined to the narrow belt of forest upon the Missouri, was held by the remaining 6 tribes. They were strictly River Tribes. [105, 106]

Tribes of Lake Superior 1) Ojibwas; 2) Otawas (= O-tä’-was) u. 3) Potawattamies subdivisions of an original tribe; die Ojibwas der original tribe, the stem, blieben am original seat at the great fisheries upon the outlet of the lakes lake; they are styled „Elder Brother“ durch die beiden andern, die Ottawas Otawas „next elder brother“, die Pottawattamies Potawattamies„Younger Brother“. Die letzteren separated first, die Ottawas Otawas last, as shown by the relative amount of dialectical variation, that of the Pottawattamies Potawattamies being greatest. Als entdeckt, 1614, die Ojibwas seated at the Rapids on the outlet of Lake Superior, from which point they had spread along the southern shore of the lake to the site of Ontonagon, along its northeastern shore and down the St. Mary River well toward Lake Huron; ihre position famos for a fish and game subsistence ⦗they did not cultivate maize and plants⦘; zurückstehend keiner position in Northamerica ausser dem Valley der des Columbia. ⦗Die Ojibwas manufactured earthen pipes, water jars, u. vessels in ancient times, as they now assert. Indian pottery zu verschiednen Zeiten dug up at the Sault St. Mary, the work of their forefathers.⦘ Mit such advantages certain to develop a large Indian population u. send out successive bands of emigrants to become independent tribes.

Die Pottawamies Potawattamies occupied a region on the confines of Upper Michigan u. Wisconsin, woraus 1641 the Dakotas were in act of expelling them. Zugleich die Ottawas Otawas, deren earlier residence supposed on the Ottawa Otawa river of Canada, had drawn westward, damals seated upon the Georgian Bay, the Manitouline islands u. at Mackinaw, von welchen Punkten they were spreading südlich über Lower Michigan. – Separation in place and distance had long before their discovery resulted in the formation of dialects, u. in tribal independence. Die 3 tribes, deren territories contiguous, had formed an alliance for mutual protection, „the Ottawa Otawa  Bei Morgan, S. 107: Confederacy
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Confederation
. (offenive offensive and defensive league)

Vor diesen secessions another affiliated tribe, the Miamis, had broken off vom Ojibwa stock – the common parent tribe – u. migrated to Central Illinois u. Western Indiana. Folgend im track dieser migration were the Illinois, another u. later offshoot vom same stem, who afterwards subdivided in Peorias, Kaskaskias, Weaws u. Piankeshaws. Ihre dialects mit dem der Miamis nearest affinity mit dem Ojibwa u. next mit the Cree. ⦗The Pottawamie Potawattamie u. Cree have diverged about equally; wahrscheinlich Ojibwas, Ottawas Otawas u. Cree one people in dialect nach dem detachment der Potawattamies Outflow aller dieser tribes from central seat at the great fisheries of Lake Superior – as a natural centre of subsistence. Die Algonkins v. New England, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia u. Carolina sehr wahrscheinlich derived von same stock. [106–108]

Each emigrating band in the nature of a military colony, seeking to acquire u. hold a new area, preserving at first, and as long as possible, a connection with the mother tribe; durch these successive movements they sought to expand their joint possessions u. afterward, to resist the intrusion of alien people within their limits … the Indian Tribes speeking dialects of the same stock language have been usually found in territorial continuity, however extended their common area. Dies gilt, in the main, von all tribes of mankind linguistically unitedSpreading from  Bei Morgan, S. 108: some geographical
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one common
centre
they have preserved their connection with the motherland as a means of succor in times of danger, and as a place of refuge in calamity. [108]

Damit an area initial point of migration werde durch gradual production of a surplus population required special advantages in the means of subsistence. Solche natural centres wenig zahlreich in Nordamerika– in fact, nur 3. An der Spitze the Valley of the Columbia; ausgezeichnetste region on the face of the earth in the variety and amount of subsistence it afforded, prior to the cultivation of Maize and plants. Excellent game country as mixture of forest u. prairie. In the prairies wuchs a species of bread-root, the Kamash u. zwar abundantly; in these respects it was, however, not superior to other areas; was es auszeichnetinexhaustible supply of salmon im Columbia u. andern Küstenflüssen, they crowded these streams in millions, were taken in the season mit facility u. greatest abundance. After being split open u. dried in the sun, they were packed u. removed to the villages, formed their principal food during the greater part of the year. Ausserdem die shellfisheries der Küste, supplying large amount of food during the winter months. Ausserdem Clima mild u. equable throughout the year, about that of Virginia u. Tennessee; was the paradise of tribes ohne knowledge der cereals. Es kann sehr wahrscheinlich gemacht werden, dass das Valley of Columbia the seedland of the Ganowánian family, wovon successive streams of migrating bands, bis both divisions des Continent occupied u. dass beide divisions, bis zur Epoche der europ. Entdeckung replenished with inhabitants von dieser Quelle. Die grosse Ausdehnung der |43 Centralprairien, spreading continuously more than 1500 miles v. Nord nach Süd u. über 1000 miles von Ost nach West, interposed a barrier to free communication zwischen Pacific u. Atlantic sides des Continents in Nordamerika. Wahrscheinlich daher, dass an original family commencing its spread from the Valley of the Columbia, u. migrating under the influence of physical causes, would reach Patagonia eher als Florida. Die Entdeckung des Maize würde den course of events nicht materially change, or suspend the action of previous causes. Nicht bekannt wo das American Cereal indigenous; aber Central America, wo vegetation intensively active, wo Maize peculiarly fruitful, wo die oldest seats der Village Indians found … probable place of nativity of Maize. Von Centralamerica die cultivation would have spread to Mexico, dann Neu Mexico, u. valley des Mississippi, von da östlich to the shores des Atlantic; the volume of cultivation diminishing from the starting point to the extremities[.] It would spread independently von den Village Indians, from the desire of more barbarous tribes to gain the new subsistence; aber extended nie über Neu Mexico to the Valley of the Columbia, obgleich cultivation practised durch die Minnitarees u. Mandans des Upper Missouri, die Shyans des Red River des North, by the Hurons of Lake Simcoe in Canada, the Abenakies of the Kennebek Kennebec, wie generally by all the tribes zwischen Mississippi u. Atlantic. Migrating bands von dem Valley of Columbia would press upon the village Indians of New Mexico u. Mexico, tending to force displaced u. fragmentary tribes towards and through the Istmus Isthmus into South America, wohin diese would carry the first germs of progress developed by the Village Indians. Repeated at intervals of time it would tend to bestow upon South America a class of inhabitants far superior to the wild bands formerly supplied, and at the expense of the Northern section thus impoverished. So South America would attain the advanced position in development, even in an inferior country, which seems to have been the fact. The Peruvian legend of Manco Capac u. Mama Oello, children of the sun, brother and sister, husband and wife shows that a band of village Indians migrating from a distance, though not necessarily from North America direct, had gathered together and taught the rude tribes of the Andes the higher arts of life, including the cultivation of Maize and plants; legend dropped out the band, retained only the leader and his wife.

2)tes 2tes) (nach Valley of Columbia) natural initial centre: the peninsula between lakes Superior, Huron u. Michigan, the seat of the Ojibwas u. nursery land of many Indian tribes.

3tes) natural initial centre: the lake region of Minnesota, the nursery ground der present  Bei Morgan, S. 109: Dakota tribes
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Dakotian tribes
; Grund anzunehmen, dass Minnesota was a part of the Algonkin area vor Besetzung durch die Dakotas. [108, 109]

Sobald cultivation of maize u. plants erschien, it tended to localize the people u. support them in smaller areas, as well as to increase their numbers; übertrug aber nicht control des Continents to the most advanced tribes der Village Indians, die fast nur von Cultivation subsisted. Horticulture spread unter den principal tribes in the Lower Status of barbarism, improved greatly their condition, they held, mit den non horticultural tribes, the great areas of North America when discovered, u. v. ihren ranks the Continent replenished mit inhabitants. [109]

Incessant warfare der aborigines mit einander; als Regel the most persistent warfare unter tribes speaking different stocklanguages, wie z. B. zwischen Iroquois u. Algonkin tribes, u. der ersteren ditto mit den Dakota tribes. Dagegen Algonkin u. Dakota tribes lived at peace mit each other, gezeigt durch occupation of continuous areas. Die Iroquois pursued a war of extermination gegen their kindred tribes, the Eries, Neutral Nation, the Hurons u. die Susquehannocks. Tribes speaking dialects derselben stocklanguage können sich verständigen, compose their differences, u. lernen, in virtue of their common descent, sich als natural allies zu betrachten. [110, 111]

Bevölkgunszahl Bevölkerungszahl in a given area limited by amount of the subsistence it afforded; when fish u. game the main reliance for food, immense area required to maintain a small tribe. Als farinaceous food hinzukam, area occupied by a tribe still large in proportion to the number of the people. New York – mit 47,000 □ miles [–] hatte nie mehr als 25,000 Indians, inclus. mit den Iroquois die Algonkins on the eastside des Hudson u. upon the Long Island u. die Eries u. Neutral Nation in der westlichen  Bei Morgan, S. 111: section
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Seite
des Staats. A personal government, gegründet upon gentes, unfähig hinreichende central power zu entwickeln to control the increasing numbers des people, wenn sie nicht in reasonable distance von |44 einander blieben.

Unter den Village Indians von Neu Mexico, Mexico u. Centralamerica Wachsthum der Bevölkrungszahl upon a small area hielt nicht den Process der Disintegration auf. Wo verschiedne pueblos seated nah bei einander am selben Strom, the people usually of common descent u. under a tribal or confederate government. ⦗Each pueblo gewöhnlich an independent, selfgoverning self-governing community⦘. About 7 stocklanguages, allein gesprochen in New Mexico, jede mit several dialects. Zur Zeit v. Coronado’s expedition1540–42 – the villages found numerous but small. Es waren ihrer 7 of Cibola, Tucayan u. Quivira u. Hemez u. 12 of Tiguex, u. andre groups indicating a linguistic connection of their members. Unbekannt ob each group confederated. Die 7 Moqui Pueblos (die Tucayan villages of Coronado’s expedition) sollen jetzt confederate sein, waren es wahrscheinlich zur Zeit ihrer Entdeckung. [111]

Der process of subdivision operating unter den American aborigines für 1000de v. Jahren, hat in North America allein an 40 stocklanguages entwickelt, wovon jede gesprochen in Anzahl v. Dialects durch gleiche Zahl unabhängiger tribes.

Für an American Indian tribe nur a few hundreds u. höchstens a few 1000 people erheischt, um ihn in a respectable position in Ganowanian Ganowánian family zu stellen. [111, 112]

 Zwischentitel von Marx. Die Formulierung hat Marx dem Text von Morgan (S. 112) entnommen.
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Functions u. attributes of the Indian tribes. (p. 112–121)

1) Possession of a territory and a name.

the territory – their actual settlement u. so much of the surrounding region als tribe ranged over in hunting u. fishing u. could defend gegen andre encroaching tribes; darüber hinaus a wide margin of neutral grounds, separating them vom nächsten Tribe, speaking a different language, and claimed by neither; less wide u. less clearly marked, when they spoke dialects of the same language.

Die names, die nach u. nach die tribes individualize, in vielen cases zufällig wie die Senecas nannten sich selbst „Great Hill People“ etc. Nach Beginn der europäischen Colonisation im nördlichen Amerika erhielten die Indian tribes Namen von andern tribes who had bestowed names upon them different from their own. Hence a number of tribes known in history under names not recognized by themselves. [112, 113]

2) The exclusive possession of a dialect.

Tribe and dialect substantially co-extensive. Die 12 Dakota bands jetzt properly tribes, aber forced in vorzeitige Trennung durch advance of Americans upon their original area which forced them upon the plains. Früher war ihre connexion so intimate geblieben dass nur one new dialect was forming, the Teeton, on the Missouri; the Isauntie on the Mississippi being the original speech. Vor einigen Jahren die Cherokees zählten 26,000, largest number of Indians ever found within U. St., speaking the same dialect; in the mountain districts of Georgia a slight divergence of speech had occured. Die Ojibwas, still in the main non-horticultural, about 15,000, speak the same dialect; die Dakota tribes, 25,000, 2 closely related dialects. Dies Ausnahmen. In U. St. u. British America zählt a tribe on average less than 2000. [113, 114]

3) The right of investing Sachems and Chiefs elected by the Gentes. [114]

4) The right to depose Sachems and Chiefs.

In the Status of Savagery and in the Lower and also in the Middle Status of barbarism, office was bestowed for life, or during good behavior. [115]

Die Sachems u. Chiefs, v. den gentes gewählt, wurden nach Tribe Bildung, members des Tribal Council; hence das Recht v. Investitur letzterem vorbehalten; ebenso hatte er auch Absetzungsrecht; ging, nach Bildung v. Confederation auf council of confederacy über. The offices of Sachem and Chief universally elective north of Mexico; evidence  Bei Morgan, S. 114: with sufficient evidence, as to other parts of the continent, to leave no doubt of the universality of the rule
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in other parts of the Continent, evidence, dass sie es allgemein so ursprünglich gewesen.
[114, 115]

5) The possession of a religious faith and worship.

»After the fashion of barbarians the American Indians were a religious people.« (p. 115) Medicine lodge – Dancing form of worship. [115, 116]

6) A supreme government through a council of chiefs.

Gens represented by its chiefs; tribe represented by the council of the chiefs of the gentes. Called together under circumstances known to all, held in the midst of the people, open to their orators, it was certain to |45 act under popular influence. Council  Zusatz von Marx.
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(tribal)
had to guard and protect the common interests of the tribe. Questions and exigencies arising through their incessant warfare with other tribes. As a general rule, the council open to any private individual desiring to address it on a public question.  The women allowed to express their wishes and opinions through an orator of their own election. Decision given by the Council. Unanimity was a fundamental law of its action among the Iroquois.

Military operations usually left to the action of the voluntary principle. Theoretically each tribe at war with every other tribe with which it had not formed a treaty of peace. Any person at liberty to organize a war-party and conduct an expedition wohin er wollte. Er announced his project by giving a war-dance and inviting volunteers. If he succeeded in forming a party, which would consist of such persons as joined him in the dance, they departed immediately, while enthusiasm was at its height. When a tribe was menaced with an attack, war parties were formed to meet it in much the same manner. Where forces so raised were united in one body, each under its own war-captain and their joint movements determined by a council of these captains. This relates to tribes in the Lower Status of Barbarism. The Aztecs u. Tlascalans went out by phratries, each subdivision under its own captain, u. distinguished by costumes u. banners.

Confederation of Iroquois u. that of the Aztecs were the most remarkable for aggressive purposes. Unter Tribes in the Lower Status of Barbarism, incl. the Iroquois, the most destructive work performed by inconsiderable war-parties, beständig forming and making expeditions into distant regions. Sanction of the Council for diese expeditions weder sought, nor necessary.

Council of the tribe had power to declare war u. make peace, send and receive embassies, make alliances; intercourse between independent tribes conducted by wise men and chiefs, delegated dazu. When a tribe expected such a delegation, a council was convened for its reception and for the transaction of its business. [116–118]

7) A headchief head-chief of the tribe in some instances.

Nämlich a Sachem, superior in rank to his associates. Der Council nur selten in session u. urgencies might arise demanding the provisional action of some one authorized to represent the tribe, subject to the ratification of his acts by the council. This only basis for the office ofheadchief head-chief. Iroquois had none u. their confederacy had no executive officer. Wo der headchief head-chief in Indian tribes existed there, in a form too feeble to correspond to the conception of an executive magistrate. The elective tenure of the office of chief, and the liability of the person to deposition, settle the character of the office. [118, 119]

Der Council of Indian chief chiefs was a government of one power, prevailing generally among the tribes in Lower Status of Barbarism. Dies erstes Stadium.

Zweites Stadium: a government coordinated between a council of chiefs and a general military commander, one representing the civil, the other the military functions. Dies form began to manifest itself in the Lower Status of Barbarism after formation of Confederacies, became definite in Middle Status. Das office of general Bei Morgan, S. 119: principal
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chief
military commander – was the germ of that of a chief executive magistrate, king, emperor, president; a government of 2 powers.

Drittes Stadium: government of a people or nation by a council of chiefs, an assembly of the people, and a general military commander. Appears under tribes who had attained to the Upper Status of Barbarism, Homeric Greeks, or Italian tribes of the period of Romulus. Large increase of people united in a nation, their establishment in walled cities, creation of wealth in flocks, herds, lands, brought in the assembly of the people as an instrument of government. Council of chiefs became a preconsidering council; popular assembly adopted or rejected public measures, its action final; lastly a general. Dies blieb bis Eintritt v. political society, wenn unter Athenians z. B., council of chiefs became Senate, the assembly of the people the ecclesia or popular assembly.

Im Middle Status of Barbarism the gentes organized into tribes remained as before, aber confederacies more frequent. In some areas, as in the Valley of Mexico, keineswegs – no evidence dafür – dass political society established. It is impossible to found a political society or a state upon gentes. [119–121]

Pt. II Ch. V The Iroquois Confederacy.

 Bei Morgan, S. 122: A tendency to confederate for mutual defense would very naturally exist among kindred and contiguous tribes. When the advantages of a union had been appreciated by actual experience the organization, at first a league, would gradually cement into a federal unity. The state of perpetual warfare in which they lived would quicken this natural tendency into action among such tribes as were sufficiently advanced in intelligence and in the arts of life to perceive its benefits. It would be simply a growth from a lower into a higher organization by an extension of the principle which united the gentes in a tribe.
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Verbindung for mutual protection erst einfach fact, hervorgerufen durch necessities (wie attack von aussen), dann League, dann systematic confederacy.
Bei Entdeckung v. America existirten confederacies in verschiednen parts, u. a. namentlich: Iroquois confederacy of 5 independent tribes, Creek Confederacy of 6, Otawa Confederacy of 3, Dakota League of the |46 „Seven Council Fires“, die Moqui Confederacy in New Mexico of 7 Pueblos, the Aztec Confederacy of 3 tribes in the Valley of Mexico. Am leichtesten Bildung v. confederacy (generally difficult wegen den »unstable geographical relations«[)] für die Village Indians im Middle Status of Barbarism wegen der nearness ihrer pueblos zu einander u. der smallness ihrer areas. Die berühmtesten confederacies in Northamerica die der Aztecs u. die der Iroquois; letztere genau bekannt;   Bei Morgan, S. 123: The Aztec confederacy has been handled in such a manner historically as to leave it doubtful whether it was simply a league of three kindred tribes, offensive and defensive, or a systematic confederacy like that of the Iroquois. That which is true of the latter was probably in a general sense true of the former, so that a knowledge of one will tend to elucidate the other.
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erstere hatte wahrscheinlich denselben Charakter of systematic confederacy, aber in den historischen (span.) Berichten erscheint sie mehr od. minder als blosse league of 3 kindred tribes, offensive and defensive.

The Confederacy had the gentes for its basis and centre u. stocklanguage, (wovon die dialects still mutually intelligible) and stock language for its circumference; none found beyond the bounds of the dialects of a common language; otherwise heterogeneous elements would have been forced into the organization. Ausnahmsweis wohl einmal die remains of a tribe, not cognate in speech, admitted into an existing confederacy, wie z. B. die Natchez, after their overthrow by the French, into the Creek Confederacy. There was no possible way of becoming connected on equal terms with a confederacy ausser durch membership in a gens and tribe, and a common speech. [122–124]

Monarchy incompatible mit gentilism. The Grecian tyrannies were despotisms founded upon usurpation – the germ out of which the later kingdoms arose; the socalled kingdoms of the  Bei Morgan, S. 124: heroic
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homeric
age were military democracies, and nothing more. [124]

Die Iroquois ursprünglich emigrants from beyond the Mississippi, wahrscheinlich a branch des Dakota Stock; erst nach valley des St. Lawrence, settled near Montreal. Durch die hostility der surrounding tribes gezwungen, sie nach der central region of New York. Mit canoes coasting das östliche Gestade des See Ontario (their numbers small), war(?) ihre erste Niederlassung an Mündung des Oswego river, wo sie nach ihren traditions lang blieben; waren damals wenigstens 3 distinct tribes,  Numerierung von Marx.
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1)
Mohawks,  Numerierung von Marx.
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2)
Onandagas Onondagas u.  Numerierung von Marx.
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3)
Senecas. Ein tribe settled nachher at the head of the Canandaigua lace lake, became the Seneca; andrer occupied the Onaindaiga Onondaga valley, wurden die Onandagas Onondagas; dritter passed östlich, settled erst at Oneida, bei site of Utica, removed then to Mohawc Mohawk Valley, became the Mohawks. Die[,] die blieben, wurden die  Numerierung von Marx.
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4)
Oneidas. Ein Theil der Senecas oder der Onondagas settled entlang dem eastern shore des Cayuga lake, wurden die [5)] Cayugas. Vor Besetzung durch die Iroquois, scheint New York Theil der Area der Algonin(?) Algonkin tribes gewesen zu sein; nach ihren traditions entsetzten die Iroquois die alten Bewohner wie sie gradually ihre Niederlassungen ausdehnten, östlich vom Hudson, u. westlich vom Genesee.

 Zusatz von Marx.
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⦗Also bis dato 5 tribes: 1) Seneca, 2) Cayuga, 3) Ononondaga Onondaga, 4) Oneidas Oneida, 5) Mohawk

Nach ihrer tradition lange Zeit nach ihrer Niederlassung in New York, während der sie common cause against their enemies machten, aber ehe sie confederacy bildeten. Residirten in villages, gewöhnlich umgeben mit stockades, lebten von fish u. game, u. den products of a limited horticulture. Ihre Anzahl nie über 20,000.  Precarious subsistence u. incessant warfare repressed numbers in all the aboriginal tribes, inclus. the Village Indians. The Iroquois enshrouded in great forests, then overspreading New York. Zuerst sie entdeckt 1608; um 1675 culminating point ihrer dominion über weite Area, covering grösseren Theil v. New York, Pennsylvania u. Ohio ⦗1651–5 expelled sie their kindred tribes, die Eries, von Area zwischen Genesee river u. Lake Erie, kurz nachher die Neutral Nations vom Niagara river, kamen so in Besitz des Rests von New York, mit Ausnahme des Lower Hudson u. Long Island⦘ u. portions of Canada, north of lake Ontario. Zur Zeit ihrer Entdeckung waren sie die highest representatives of the Red Race  Bei Morgan, S. 126: north of New Mexico
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im Norden v. Mexico
in Intelligenz u. advancement, obgleich inferior to the Gulf tribes in arts of life. Noch 4000 Iroquois in New York, about 1000 in Canada u. ebensoviel im Westen. [124–126]

Confederation formed about 1400–1450 (früher nach den generations of Sachems in the history of David Cusick, a Tuscarora.) The Iroquois lebten – die 5 tribes – in contiguous territories, sprachen einander verständliche dialects derselben Sprache u. hatten certain common gentes in the several tribes. Andre tribes in selben Umständen, aber die Iroquois, durch Bildung der confederacy, zeigten ihre superiority.  Bei Morgan, S. 126: It is affirmed by the Iroquois that
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Nach ihrer Sage
die confederacy formed durch a council of wisemen wise-men and chiefs der 5 tribes, meeting für den purpose on the north shore of the Onondaga lake, near the site of Syracuse, perfected in ihrer session die organization u. set in immediate operation.  Bei Morgan, S. 127: The origin of the plan is ascribed to a mythical, or, at least, traditionary person, Hä-yo-went’-hä, the Hiawaeha of Longfellow’s celebrated poem
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Der origin des plan zugeschrieben einer traditionary person Hä-yo-went’-hä, der Hiawatha Longfellow’s
. Die formation der Confederation still celebrated unter ihnen as a masterpiece of Indian wisdom; nach den Iroquois selbst bis jetzt fortexistirende Form ihrer Organization mit kaum irgend einem change. [126–128]|

47

Die general features der Iroquois confederacy sind:

1) A union of 5 tribes, composed of common gentes, under one government on the basis of equality; jeder tribe remaining independent in all matters pertaining to local self-government.

2) A general Council of Sachems, limited in number, equal in rank u. authority, invested with supreme powers in all matters relating to the Confederacy.

3) 50 Sachemships were created and named in perpetuity in certain gentes of the several tribes; with power in these gentes to fill vacancies occurring, by election from among their respective members, u. mit power to depose from office for cause; the right to invest these Sachems with office reserved to the General Council.

4) The Sachems of the Confederacy also Sachems in their respective tribes, and with the Chiefs of these tribes formed the Council of each, which tribal council supreme over all matters pertaining to the tribe exclusively.

5) Unanimity in the Council made essential to every public act.

6) In the General Council the Sachems voted by Tribes, each tribe had so a negative upon the others.  Zusatz von Marx. Marx bezieht sich auf das seit dem 16. Jahrhundert im polnischen Parlament (Sejm) geltende „Liberum veto“, das Recht jedes Abgeordneten, durch seinen Einspruch einen Beschluss zu verhindern.
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(Poland!)

7) Council of each tribe had power to convene the general council; the latter had no power to convene itself.

 Marx führte zunächst unter „8)“ versehentlich den Punkt an, der bei Morgan (S. 128) der neunte war, notierte dann den achten und passte die Numerierung an.
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9)
The Confederacy had no chief Executive Magistrate, or official head.

8) The General Council was open to the orators of the people for the discussion of public questions; but the Council alone decided.

10) Experiencing the necessity for a General military commander they created the office in a dual form, that one might neutralize the other. The 2 principal war-chiefs created were made equal in powers.

When the Tuscaroras später admitted,  Bei Morgan, S. 128: their sachems were
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they
allowed by courtesy to sit as equals in the General Council, but the original number of Sachems wurde nicht increased. [128, 129]

The sachemships were distributed unequally among the 5 tribes, but without giving to either a preponderance of power, and unequally among the gentes of the last three tribes.

Mohawks had 9 Sachems, Oneidas 9, Onondagas 14, Cayugas 10, Senecas 8.

Die Sachems waren arrangirt in Klassen to facilitate the attainment of unanimity in the Council.

1) Mohawks. 1ste class. 3 (Turtle tribe) 2t class  3. (Wolf tribe) 3t class. 3. (Bear tribe)
2) Oneidas

  "  "

3 (Wolf tribe)

  "  "

3 (Turtle tribe)

  "  "

3. (Bear tribe)
3) Onondagas. 1st class. 3 (1ster Bear tribe. 3ter Bear tribe. Dieser u. 2ter were hereditary councillors of the To-do-dä’-ho,  who held the most illustrious Sachemship.
2te class. 3. (1ster ( Snipe tribe) (2t Turtle tribe)
3te class. 1. (Wolf tribe) This sachem was hereditary keeper of the wampum.
4te class. 4. (1ster Deer tribe; 2t Deer tribe; 3t Turtle tribe. 4ter Bear tribe.
5t class. 3. (1ster Deer tribe. 2ter Turtle tribe. 3t Turtle tribe.
4) Cayugas. 1ste class. 5. (1ster Deer tribe; 2t Heron tribe. 3t Bear tribe. 4t Bear tribe. 5t Turtle tribe.
2t class. 3. (2t Turtle tribe. 3t Heron tribe.
3 class. 2 (beide Snipe tribe.)
5) Senecas. 1st class. 2. (Turtle tribe und Snipe tribe)
2 class. 2 (Turtle tribe u. Hawk tribe)
3 class (2) (Bear tribe u. Snipe tribe)
4 class. 2. (Snipe tribe u. Wolf tribe)

In fact besteht der General Council nur aus 48. Hä-yo-went’-hä u. Da-gä-no-we’-da  Zusatz von Marx. Siehe Morgan, S. 127.
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die 2 legendären Gründer
consented to take the office unter den Mohawk Sachems u. to leave their names in the list unter Bedingung that after their demise the 2 should remain thereafter vacant. At all councils for the investiture of Sachems their names are still called.  Bemerkung von Marx. Anspielung auf den Aufruf der französischen Anarchistin Louise Michel in der Zeitschrift „La Révolution sociale“ (Nr. 15, 19. Dezember 1880), für die Pariser Kommunalwahlen im Januar 1881 Märtyrer der Commune als Kandidaten aufzustellen. Siehe: Louise Michel: Mémoires. T. 1. Paris 1886. S. 267; Les candidatures mortes. In: La Presse. Paris. An. 45. Nr. 351, 21. Dezember 1880. S. 1.
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(Candidatures mortes)
|

48

Jeder Sachem hat einen aid elected by the gens of his principal from among its members, was installed mit same forms u. ceremonies; had to stand behind his superior on all occasions of ceremony, act as his messenger, in general subject to his directions; er hatte (der aid) office of chief, machte seine Wahl nach Tod des Sachem an dessen Stelle wahrscheinlich; diese aids hiessen: „Braces in the Long House“. (dies »Long House« symbolized the Confederacy)

The names bestowed upon the original Sachems wurden die Namen ihrer resp. successors in perpetuity. z. B. bei Tod v. Gä-ne-o-di’-yo, einem der 8 Seneca Sachems, sein successor gewählt durch die Turtle gens, worin Sachemship erblich u. when »raised up« by the General Council, his own name would be »taken off« u. jener ihm gegeben, was part der ceremony. Ihr jetziger Council noch fully organized, except dem Mohawk tribe, removing to Canada about 1775. Vacancies occurring their places are filled u. a general council is convened to install the new Sachems u. their aids. [129–132]

For tribal purposes the 5 tribes independent of each other, their territories separated by fixed boundary lines, their tribal interests distinct. Als organization der tribe weder weakened noch impaired durch den Confederate compact; each in vigorous life.

 Bei Morgan, S. 132: the Iroquois commended to our forefathers
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Die Iroquois recommended to the forefathers der Americans (Engl.)
1755 a union of the colonies similar to their own. They saw in the common interests u. common speech der several colonies elements for a confederation. [132, 133]

The Onondagas were made „Keepers of the Wampum“ u. „Keepers of the Council Brand“, the Mohawks „Receivers of Tribute“ from subjugated tribes, the Senecas „Keepers of the Door“ des Long House. Diese u. ähnliche Provisions were made for the common advantage. [133]

Die confederacy rested upon the tribes ostensibly, but primarily upon common gentes. All the members of the same gens, whether Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, or Senecas were brothers and sisters to each other in virtue of their descent von the same ancestor. When they met, the first inquiry was the name of each other’s gens, and next the immediate pedigree of their respective sachems; dann able under their system of consanguinity to find ihre wechselseitige relationship.

3 gentes, – Wolf, Bear, Turtle – common to the 5 tribes; diese u. 3 others were common to 3 tribes; the Wolf gens, durch division of an original tribe into 5, nun in 5 divisions, wovon one in each tribe; selbes mit Bear u. Turtle gentes. Deer, Snipe u. Hawk gentes were common to Senecas, Cayugas u. Onondagas.   Kommentar von Marx.
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⦗Das Erblich machen Erblichmachen der Wahl der Sachems in certain gentes, does it not spring davon, dass certain gentes most common allen tribes?⦘
Der Mohawk des Wolf gens recognized an Oneida, Onandaga, Cayuga od. Seneca von selbem gens, though its members spoke different dialects of the same language, as a brother etc. In the estimation of an Iroquois every member of his gens in whatever tribe was as certainly a kinsman, as an other own brother; dies noch in its original force; explains the tenacity, womit die old confederacy zusammenhielt. Had the 5 tribes fallen in collision, it would have turned Wolf against Wolf, Bear against Bear etc, brother against brother. Solang die confederacy dauerte, nie Anarchie nor rupture der Organization. Such persistency v. bond of kin.

The „Long House“ (Ho-de’-no-sote« ) wurde Symbol der Confederacy; sie nannten sich selbst the „People of the Long House“ (Ho-de’-no-sau-nee), der einzige Name, den sie sich gaben.

Coalescence  Bei Morgan, S. 135: last
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höhere
Stufe des Processes. z. B. die 4 Athenian tribes coalesced in Attica into a nation by the intermingling of the tribes in the same area u. the gradual disappearance der geographical lines between them. Die tribal names u. organizations remained in full vitality, aber without the basis of independent territory. When political society was instituted on the basis of the deme or township, u. all the residents of the deme became a body politic, irrespective of their gens u. tribe, the coalescence became complete. [133–135]

The Valley of the Onondaga as the seat of the central tribe, and the place where the Council Brand was supposed to be perpetually burning, the usual aber keineswegs exclusive place for holding the councils of the confederacy etc.

Ursprünglich the Hauptobject des Council to raise up sachems to fill vacancies (von death od. deposition), but transacted all other business mit Bezug auf common welfare. Nach u. nach the Council fell into 3 distinct kinds (nach den functions, die er abwechselnd übt); Civil (declares war, makes peace, sends u. receives |49 embassies, enters [into] treaties mit foreign tribes, regulates the affairs of subjugated tribes etc); Mourning Council (raises up Sachems, invests them mit Office); Religious Council (held for the observance of a general religious festival). Nach u. nach Mourning Council for both purposes; jetzt der einzige, da die civil powers of the Confederacy terminated with the supremacy over them of the State.

An Overture made by a foreign tribe to either of the 5 tribes; der tribal council entschied ob die affair worth while to require a council of the confederacy; if so, a herald sent to the nearest tribes  Zusatz von Marx.
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(v. den 5)
in position, on east u. west, with a belt of wampum, containing a message to the effect that a civil council (Ho-de-os’-seh) [would meet] at specified place, time u. object; der tribe, der das message empfing, musste es senden dem next in position, bis die notification complete. Council assembled nie unless summoned under the prescribed forms. Wenn der Council was to meet for peaceful purposes, then each sachem was to bring with him a bundle of fagots of white cedar, typical of peace; if for warlike purposes, fagots of red cedar, emblematical of war.

Gesetzt die Onondagas seien der tribe, der den General Council had summoned. Am appointed day the Sachems of the several  Bei Morgan, S. 137, Fn. 1: nations
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tribes
, with their followers, who usually arrived a day or two before u. remained encamped at a distance, were received in a formal manner by the Onondaga sachems at the rising of the sun. They marched in separate processions from their camps to the council grove, each bearing his skin robe and bundle of fagots, wo die Onondaga Sachems awaited them with a concourse of people. The Sachems then formed themselves in a circle, an Onondaga Sachem, acting by appointment as master of the ceremonies, occupying the side towards the rising sun. At a signal they marched round the circle moving by the North. The rim of the circle toward the North called „the cold side“, that on the west „the side toward the setting sun“, that on the south „the side of the high sun“, that on the east „the side of the rising sun“. After marching 3 times around on the circle single file, the head and foot of the column being joined, the leader stopped on the rising sun side, and deposed before him his bundle of fagots. In this followed by the others. ⦗So formed an inner circle of faggots.⦘ After this each sachem spread his skin robe in the same order and sat down upon it, cross[-]legged, behind his bundle of fagots, with his assistant Sachem standing behind him. After a moment’s pause, the master of the ceremonies arose, drew from his pouch 2 pieces of dry wood and a piece of punk  Übersetzung von Marx.
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(Zündschwamm)
with which he proceeded to strike fire by friction. When fire obtained, he stepped within the circle u. set fire to his own bundle, and then to each of the others. When diese well ignited, and at a signal from the master of the ceremonies, the sachems arose and marched 3 times around the Burning Circle, going as before by the North. Each turned v. time to time as he walked so as to expose all sides of his person … then reseated themselves each upon his own robe. Master of the ceremonies again rising to his feet, filled and lighted the pipe of peace from his own fire; drew 3 whiffs, the first toward the Zenith (bedeutet thanks to the Great Spirit for his preservation during the last year u. for being permitted to be present at this council); the second toward the ground (means thanks to his Mother, the Earth, for the various productions which had ministered to his sustenance[)]; third toward the Sun (means thanks for his never-failing light, ever shining upon all.) Then he passed the pipe to the first upon his right toward the North, who repeated the same ceremonies u. so on around the burning circle. The ceremony of smoking the calumet bedeutete auch mutual pledg pledging of their faith, friendship, honour. Mit dieser ceremony opening of the council completed u. dieser darauf declared ready for business.[135–137]

Auf den opposite sides des Councilfire, sassen, auf der einen: Mohawk, Onondaga u. Seneca Sachems; ihre tribes, wenn in council, were brother tribes to each other u. father tribes to the two other; they constituted, by extension of the principle, a phratry of tribes u. sachems.

On the opposite side of the fire the Oneida u. Cayuga u. später die Tuscarora Sachems; a second tribal phratry; brother tribes to each other, and son tribes of those opposite.

Die Oneidas, being a subdivision of the Mohawks, u. die Cayugas a subdivision of the Onondagas or Senecas, they were in reality younger tribes, hence their relations of juniors u. seniors u. application of the phratric principle.

When the tribes named in Council, the Mohawks named first, their tribal epithet: „The Shield“; next the Onondagas, under epithet of „Name-Bearer“, because they had been appointed to select and name the 50 original sachems. Nach der tradition die Onondagas deputed a wise-man to visit the territories of the tribes and select and name the new Sachems je nach circumstances: which explains the unequal distribution of office among the several gentes; next in order the Senecas, the „Door Keeper“; were made perpetual keepers of the Western door of the Long House; dann die Oneidas, the „Great Tree“ u. die Cayugas the „Great Pipe“; the Tuscaroras named last ohne distinguishing epithet. [138, 139]|

50

Der Foreign tribe represented at the Council durch a delegation of wise-men u. chiefs who bore their proposition and presented it in person. Nach ihrer introduction, macht einer der Sachem short address, thanking the Great Spirit etc, dann informing the delegates dass council prepared to hear them. One of the delegates submits the propostion in form, sustains it by arguments as ; nach conclusion der address, the delegation withdraws vom Council to wait at a distance. Nun debate unter den Sachems; when decision come to, a speaker appointed to communicate the answer of the council zu deren Empfang the delegation were recalled. Als speaker des Council meist chosen einer von tribe, der had convened the council; macht förmlichen speech reviewing the whole question, theilt dann rejection (mit reasons) mit od. acceptance (völlige od. in part). Im letzteren Fall belts of wampum exchanged as evidence of the terms of the agreement.

„This belt preserves my words“, common remark of an Iroquois chief in council, then delivering the belt as evidence of what he had said. Several such belts given in the course of a negotiation to the opposite party. In the reply of the latter a belt would be returned for each proposition accepted. [139]

Unanimity of the Sachems required upon all public questions u. essential to the validity of every public act; it was a fundamental law der confederacy;  kannten nichts von majorities u. minorities in the action of councils; zur Erreichung der votes die oben angeführten classes. Kein Sachem allowed to express an opinion in council in the nature of a vote bevor er nicht had first agreed with the sachem or sachems seiner class upon the opinion to be expressed, and had been appointed to act as a speaker for the class. So die 8 Seneca Sachems in 4 classes konnten nur 4 opinions haben, u. die 10 Cayuga Sachems, in selber number of classes, konnten auch nur 4 opinions haben. Dann across a cross-consultation zwischen den 4 Sachems appointed to speak for the 4 classes; when they had agreed, they designated one of their number to express their resulting opinion, which was the answer of their tribe. Wenn so die Sachems jedes der tribes separately had become of one mind, their several opinions compared u. if they agreed the decision of the council was made. The 5 persons appointed to express the decision of the 5 tribes erklärt vielleicht die functions u. appointment der 6 electors in der Aztec confederacy. … War any sachem obdurate u. unreasonable, influences brought to bear upon him, which he could not well resist. Seltner Fall auch. [140, 141]

Beim Beginn der Amerik. Revolution konnten die Iroquois, wegen want of unanimity im confederate council, nicht übereinstimmen über Kriegserklärung gegen die neue American confederacy. Theil der Oneida Sachems refused. As neutrality was impossible with the Mohawks u. die Senecas were determined to fight, it was resolved that each tribe might engage in the war upon its own responsibility, or remain neutral. The war against the Eries, the Neutral Nation and Susquehannocks, u. die several wars gegen French, were resolved upon in General Council. »Our colonial records largely filled mit negociations mit der Iroquois Confederacy.« [140]

The induction of new Sachems into office great interest to the people u. to the Sachems selbst. Für die ceremony of raising sachems the general council primarily instituted; in this capacity called Mourning Council, weil had to lament the deceased u. to install his successor. Bei death of a Sachem, der tribe der ihn had lost had power to summon a general council, name time u. place for meeting; a herald sent out with a belt of wampum, meist the official belt of the deceased sachem which conveyed the message: „the name (der des defunct) calls for a council“, announced also the day u. place of   Bei Morgan, S. 141: convocation
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convention
. Mourning Council mit den festivities that followed Hauptattraction für die Iroquois, flocking to attendance from the most distant localities with zeal u. enthusiasm. Bei der lamentation (womit proceedings opened), a procession formed, and the lament was chanted in verse, with responses, by the united tribes, as they marched vom place of reception to the place of council. Dies 1st day’s proceeding; 2nd day: installation ceremony, lasts meist bis 4th day.

u. a., for die instruction des newly raised sachem, the ancient wampum belts, into which, nach their expression, the structure and principles of the confederacy „had been talked“, were produced, u. read, i.e. interpreted. A wise-man, not necessarily one of the Sachems, took these belts one after the other u. walking to and fro between the 2 divisions of sachems, read from them the facts which they recorded. [141, 142]|

51

Nach der Indian conception, these belts can tell, by means of an interpreter, the exact rule, provision or transaction talked into them at the time, and of which they were the exclusive record. A strand  Zusatz von Marx.
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⦗Germ. strahn, one of the twists of which a rope is composed, Strähn = hank, skain skein (Gebind[)]
of wampum bestehend aus strings von purple u. white shell beads, or a belt woven with figures formed by beads of different colour, operated on the principle of associating a particular fact with a particular string; thus giving a serial arrangement to the facts as well as fidelity to the memory. These strands u. belts of wampum were the only visible records der Iroquois; aber they required trained interpreters who could draw from their strings and figures the records locked up in their remembrance. One of the Onondaga Sachems was made „Keeper of the Wampum“, und 2 aids were raised up with him who were required to be versed in its interpretation as well as the sachem. The interpretation dieser several belts u. strings brought out, in the address of the wise-man, a connected account of the occurrences at the formation of the confederacy. The tradition was repeated in full, and fortified in its essential parts by reference to the records contained in diesen belts. Thus the council to raise up sachems became a teaching council which maintained in perpetual freshness in the minds of the Iroquois the structure and principles der confederacy, as well as the history of its formation. These proceedings occupied the council until noon each day; the afternoon being devoted to games u. amusements. At twilight each day a dinner in common served to the entire body in attendance; consisted of soup and boiled meat cooked near the council-house, and served directly from the kettle in wooden bowls, trays and ladles. Grace was said before the feast commenced; it was a prolonged exclamation by a single person on a high shrill note, falling down in cadences into stillness, followed by a response in chorus by the people. The evenings devoted to dance. After these ceremonies u. festivities – for several days – their sachems inducted into office. [142, 143]

Ob das right des Council to »invest« Sachems nur functional? Jedenfalls no case of rejection mentioned.  Bei Morgan, S. 144: In form an oligarchy, taking this term in its best sense, it [the scheme adopted by the Iroquois to maintain a ruling body of sachems] was yet a
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Obgleich in form an oligarchy, this ruling body of sachems
a representative democracy of the archaic type. Right of gentes to elect u. depose sachems u. chiefs, right of the people to be heard in council durch orators of their election, and the voluntary system in the military service. In dieser lower u. middle ethnical period democratic principles were the vital element of gentile society. [144]

Ho-yar-na-go’-war, the Iroquois name for a sachem, means: „a counselor of the people“; analog bei den members of the Grecian council of chiefs; so

bei AeschylusThe Seven against Thebes, 1005:  Urtheil und Ausspruch kundzuthun, verpflichten mich Des hohen Raths Vorsteher hier in Kadmos Stadt. (Übers. Johann Heinrich Voß.)

Marx besaß eine Ausgabe der Tragödien von Aeschylus (von Johann Heinrich Voss. Wohlfeile Ausg. Heidelberg 1839) und einen Band der von Karl Tauchnitz verlegten Stereotypausgabe (Aeschylus: Tragoediae. Editio stereotypa. Lipsiae 1810) (siehe das von Roland Daniels 1850 zusammengestellte Verzeichnis seiner 1849 in Köln zurückgelassenen Bücher (MEGA² IV/5. S. 301.12, 20)). Der Verbleib der Exemplare ist nicht bekannt. Marx zitiert diese Passage nach Morgan im vorliegenden Exzerpt noch einmal, aber mit Einfügungen aus der Ausgabe von Christian Gottfried Schütz (Aeschylus: Tragoediae quae supersunt ac deperditarum fragmenta. Recensuit, varietate lectionis et commentario perpetuo illustravit, scholia graeca, apparatum historicum et lexicon Aeschyleum adiecit Christianus Godofr[edus] Schütz. Vol. 1–3. Halae Saxonum 1782–1797). Siehe die Sachanmerkungen zu „kommt Herald …“ und „Die Stelle bei Aeschylus …“. Bei einem anderen Zitat nach Aeschylus im vorliegenden Exzerpt bezieht sich Marx explizit auf Schütz’ „Aeschylus“ (Bd. 2, S. 378). Siehe die Sachanmerkung zu „Die Stelle scheint verdorben …“
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»δοκοῦντα καὶ δόξαντ’ ἀπαγγέλλειν με χρὴ

δήμου προβούλοις τῆσδε Καδμείας πόλεως«
.

Chief of the second grade heisst: „Ha-sa-no-wä’-na“, „an elevated name“, indicates appreciation der Barbaren of the ordinary motives for personal ambition. Fast ohne Ausnahme die celebrated orators, wise-men and war-chiefs der Iroquois – chiefs of the 2nd grade. Office of chief bestowed for merit, fell necessarily auf die ablest men (diese also excluded von General Council, aus dem so das ambitious element entfernt). In American  Zusatz von Marx.
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(European)
annals fast nur berührt solche chiefs; none of the long lines of sachems ausser Logan (einer der Cayuga sachems), Handsome Lake (Seneca sachem, Gründer der New Religion der Iroquois) u. at a recent day Ely S. Parker (Seneca sachem). [144, 145]

In der confederacy of tribes taucht zuerst auf the office of General (Hos-gä-ä-geh’-da-go-wä = „Great War Soldier“). Enstanden nun cases, when the several tribes in their confederate capacity would be engaged in war. So want felt for a general commander to direct the movements of the united bands. Die introduction of this office as a permanent feature  Bei Morgan, S. 146: a great event in the history of human progress
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verhängnisvoll event in human history
. Beginn der differentiation of the military von der civil power, which, when completed, changed essentially the external manifestation of the government. Aber gentilism arrested usurpation; government of one power became nun one of 2; the functions of the gvt became in [course of] time co-ordinated between the two. This new office – the germ of a chief executive magistrate; out of the general came the king etc. The office sprang v. den military necessities of society. – |

52

The Great War Soldier der Iroquois (lower status of barbarism), der Teuctli der Aztecs (middle status of barbarism), der βασιλευς βασιλεύς der Griechen u. rex der Römer (Upper Status of barbarism) – three successive ethnic epochs – selbes office, das eines Generals in a military democracy. Bei Iroquois, Aztecs, Romans das office elective u. confirmative durch a constituency; wahrscheinlich auch bei den Griechen während der traditionary period;  Bei Morgan, S. 146/147: It is claimed that the office of basileus among the Grecian tribes, in the Homeric period was hereditary from father to son. This is at least doubtful. It is such a wide and total departure from the original tenure of the office as to require positive evidence to establish the fact. An election, or confirmation by a constituency, would still be necessary under gentile institution
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auf nichts gegründet die Behauptung, dass es erblich bei den homerischen tribes v. father to son; widerspricht dem groundwork of gentile institutions
. Wenn in zahlreichen Fällen das office passed von father to son, dies might have suggested the inference – unbegründete – of hereditary succession, now adopted as historically true.  Bei Morgan, S. 147: It is far more probable that
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Hereditary succession
, when first established, came from force  Zusatz von Marx. Siehe S. 51 und Morgan, S. 146.
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(usurpation)
, nicht by the free consent of the people. [146, 147]

Nach Stiftung der Iroquois confederacy two permanent war-chiefships created u. named, both assigned to the Seneca tribe. One of them – Ta-wan’-ne-ars, signifying needle[-]breaker ) made hereditary in the Wolf gens u. the other – So-no’-so-wä = »great oyster shell« – in the Turtle gens. Senecas erhielten beide offices, weil the greater danger of attack at the west end of their territories; were elected in same manner as the sachems, »raised up« by a general council, u. both equal in rank u. power. As general commanders they had charge of the military affairs of the confederacy u. the command of its joint forces when united in general expedition. Governor Blacksnake, recently deceased, held the office first named, showing that the succession has been regularly maintained. 2 gewählt to prevent the domination of a single man even in their military affairs; so die 2 Roman consuls, nach Abschaffung des rex. [147]

The Iroquois conquered other tribes and held them in subjection, z. B. die Delawares, aber die letztern blieben unter dem government of their own chiefs, and added nothing to the strength of the confederacy.  It was impossible in this state of society to unite tribes under one government who spoke different languages, and to hold conquered tribes under tribute with any benefit but the tribute.

The Iroquois brain approached in volume the Aryan average; eloquent in oratory, vindictive in war, indomitable in perseverance, they have gained a place in history. They had urged the Eries and the Neutral Nation to become members of their confederacy, and for their refusal expelled them from their borders. In the competition between English u. French for supremacy in North America – as the 2 were nearly equal in power and resources during the first century of colonization – the French Scheitern in no small degree to be ascribed to the Iroquois. [149, 150]



Pt. II. Ch. VI Gentes in other tribes of the Ganowánian Family.

Bei Entdeckung von America in several regions, the aborigines found in 2 dissimilar conditions: 1) The Village Indians, abhängig fast ganz upon horticulture für Subsistence; such the tribes in this status in New Mexico, Mexico, Central America u. auf dem Plateau der Andes; 2) die non-horticultural Indians, depending upon fish, bread-roots u. games game; such those of the Valley of Columbia, of the Hudson Bay Territory, parts [of] Canada etc[.] Zwischen diesen tribes, u. connecting the extremes by insensible gradations, 3) the partially Village u. partially Horticultural Indians: such: Iroquois, the New England u. Virginia Indians, the Creeks, Choctas, Cherokees, Minnitarees, Dakotas, Shawnees. Weapons, arts, usages, inventions, dances, house architecture, form of government, plan of life, all bear impress of a common mind; über wide rag range zeigen sie the successive stages of development of the same original conceptions.

Es ward nun  Zusatz von Marx. Bei Morgan, S. 152: Our first mistake […]
Schließen
(v. European u. American writers)
erst overrated the comparative advance der Village Indians, underrated das der nonhorticultural non-horticultural, hence betrachtet als 2 different races. Aber Anzahl der non-horticultural tribes were in Upper State of Savagery; the intermediate tribes in the Lower Status of barbarism, die village Indians in Middle Status of Barbarism. Die evidence of their unity of origin now so accumulated that settled; Eskimos belong to a different family.|

53

In den »Systems of consanguinity etc« Morgan presented selbiges von 70 American Indian tribes; selbes system nachgewiesen bei ihnen mit evidence of its derivation von common source; er nannte sie allesammt die Ganowánian Family („Family of the Bow and Arrow“.)

Giebt nun mit Bezug auf die Gentes der different tribes dieser Ganowánian Family: (nach Nomenclatur in „Systems of Consanguinity“) [151, 152]

I) Hodenosaunian Tribes.
1) Iroquois. Gentes: 1) Wolf. 2) Bear. 3) Beaver. 4) Turtle. 5) Deer. 6) Snipe. 7) Heron. 8) Hawk.
2) Wyandotes; remains of the ancient Hurons, separated v. Iroquois at least 400 years.
Gentes. 1) Wolf, 2) Bear, 3) Beaver, 4) Turtle, 5) Deer, 6) Snake, 7) Porcupine, 8) Hawk.

Hawk no now extinct; [the Wyandotes have] noch 5 gentes in common mit Iroquois, names nun changed.

Descent in female line; marriage in gens prohibited; office of sachem (civil chief) hereditary in gens, elective among its members; office of Sachem passes von brother to brother or v. uncle to nephew; that of warchief war-chief bestowed for merit, haben 7 sachems u. warchiefs war-chiefs; property hereditary in gens, children inherit their mother’s (nothing from father) effects, wether whether married or unmarried; each gens has power to depose and elect its chiefs.

The Eries, Neutral Nation, Nottoways, Tutelos u. Susquehannocks, now extinct, or absorbed in other tribes, belong to same lineage. [153]

II) Dakotian Tribes.

Zur Zeit ihrer Entdeckung in zahlreiche groups zerfallen, ebenso ihre Sprache in viele Dialekte; aber der Hauptsache nach bewohnten sie continuous areas; occupied the head waters des Mississippi u. beide banks des Missouri für mehr als 1000 miles in extent; Iroquois u. their cognate tribes wahrscheinlich offshot offshoot of this stem.

1) Dakotas or Sioux; jetzt about 12 independent tribes; gentile organization in decadence, aber their next congeners, the Missouri tribes possess it; have societies named after animals analogous to gentes, aber letztre jetzt verschwunden. Carver, Travels in North America[,] Philad. ed. 1796, p. 164, war bei ihnen 1767; he visited the Eastern Dacotas Dakotas on the Mississippi. Giebt exacte tribe u. gentes Beschreibung derselben, stimmt auch ganz mit sachem u. warchief war-chief etc. Morgan besuchte Eastern Dacotas Dakotas 1861, Western 1862,  Zusatz von Marx.
Schließen
also beide fast a century nach Carver
, fand nichts mehr v. gentes; a change of life den Dakotas aufgezwungen im Interval when they were forced upon the plains u. fell into nomadic bands. [154, 155]

2) Missouri tribes.
a) Punkas. Gentes: 1) Grizzly Bear; 2) Many People. 3) Elk. 4) Skunk.
5) Buffalo. 6) Snake; 7) Medicine; 8) Ice.

Hier descent in male line, the children belonging to the gens of the father; office of Sachem hereditary in gens, choice elective, but sons of a deceased Sachem eligible; change vom archaic [form] wahrscheinlich recent, da descent noch in female line bei 2 der 8 Missouri tribes, Otoes u. Missouris u. unter den Mandans (Upper Missouri tribes). Property hereditary in the gens, worin intermarriage prohibited.

b) Omahas. gentes 1) Deer 2) Black 3) Bird 4) [Turtle ]
5) Buffalo 6) Bear 7) Medicine 8) [Kaw]
9) Head 10) Red. 11) Thunder 12) [Many Seasons]

Descent, inheritance, marriage same wie bei Punkas.

c) Iowas. gentes: 1) Wolf 2) Bear. 3) Cow Buffalo 4) Elk Beaver gens existed unter Iowas u. Otoes, extinct.
Anything else as before.
5) Eagle. 6) Pigeon. 7) Snake. 8) Owl
d) Otoes u. Missouris. Diese tribes have coalesced, into one, mit following 8 gentes.
1) Wolf. 2) Bear 3) Cow Buffalo 4) Elk Descent in female line. Office of Sachem u. property
hereditary in gens, wo intermarriage prohibited.
5) Eagle. 6) Pigeon 7) Snake. 8) Owl.
e) Kaws (Kaw’-za )
Gentes 1) Dear Deer 2) Bear 3) Buffalo 4) Eagle (white) Descent, inheritance,
marriage regulation
wie bei Punkas.
5) Eagle (black) 6) Duck 7) Elk 8) Raccoon
9) Prairie Wolf 10) Turtle 11) Earth 12) Deer Tail
13) Tent 14) Thunder

Die wildest der American aborigines; intelligent; 1869 the Kaws, much reduced, about 700, giebt 50 per gens. Osages u. Quappas (tribes) hat Morgan nicht besucht. – Home country aller dieser tribes along the Missouri and its tributaries, von Mündung des Big Sioux to the Mississippi u. down the west bank des letzteren bis Arkansas river. Alle speak closely related dialects of the Dakotian stock language. [155–157]|

54
f) 3) Winnebagoes. Gentes. 1) Wolf 2) Bear 3) Buffalo. 4) Eagle
5) Elk. 6) Dear Deer. 7) Snake 8) Thunder.

When first discovered tribe resided near the lake of same name in Wisconsin; offshoot of the Dakotian stem, folgten im track der Iroquois nach valley of St. Lawrence, progress arrested durch die Algonkin tribes zwischen lake Huron u. Lake Superior. Ihre nächste affiliation mit den Missouri tribes.

Descent, inheritance, marriage, wie bei Punkas. Sonderbar dass so many tribes of this stock changed female [to] male line of descent, da, wenn  Bei Morgan, S. 157: first known, the idea of property.
Schließen
entdeckt, property
bei ihnen nur slightly über germinating stage. Wahrscheinlich all dies recent under American u. missionary influence. Carver fand bei den Winnebagoes traces of descent in the female line in 1787. (Sieh »Travels[«,] l.c.[,] p. 166) Er sagt: „Some nations, when the dignity is hereditary, limit the succession to the female line. On the death of a chief his sister’s son succeeds [him] in preference to his own son; and if he happens to have no sister the nearest female relation assumes the dignity. This accounts for a woman being at the head of the Winnebago  Bei Morgan, S. 158 (wie bei Carver): nation
Schließen
family
, which, before I was acquainted with their laws, appeared strange to me.“ 1869 the Winnebagoes numbered 1400, per gens average of 150 persons. [157, 158]

3) 4) Upper Missouri Tribes.
1) Mandans. Gentes. 1) Wolf 2) Bear 3) Prairie Chicken 4) Good knife.
5) Eagle. 6) Flathead. 7) High Village.

In intelligence u. arts of life the Mandans ahead of all their kindred tribes, dafür probably indebted to the Minnitarees.

Descent in female line, office and property hereditary in the gens, worin intermarriage prohibited. Zeigt, dass originally female descent im Dacotian Dakotian stock.

2) Minnitarees. This tribe u. the Upsarokas or Crows subdivisions of an original people[;] doubtful members of this branch of the Ganowánian family, placed in them from number of words common mit denen der Missouri u. Dakota tribes placed with them. They carried horticulture, the timber-framed house u. a peculiar religious system into this area which they taught the Mandans; können sein descendants der Mountbilders Mound-Builders.

Minnitarees u. Mandans live now in the same village; among the finest specimens of red man now in North America.

3) Upsorakas Upsarokas or Crows. Gentes: 1) Prairie Dog. 2) Bad Leggins. 3) Skunk. 4) Treacherous Lodges.
5) Lost Lodges. 6) Bad Honors. 7) Butchers. 8) Moving Lodges.
9) Bear’s Paw Mountain. 10) Blackfood Blackfoot Lodges. 11) Fish Catchers. 12) Antelope.
13) Raven.
Descent, inheritance, marriage etc wie bei Minnitarees.

If a person to whom any article of property had been presented died with it in his possession, and the donor was dead, it reverted to the gens of the latter. Property made or acquired by a wife descended after her death to her children, that of a husband to his gentile kindred. If a person made a present to a friend and died the latter must perform some recognized act of mourning, such as cutting off the joint of a finger at the funeral or surrender the property to the gens of the donor. This act of mourning very common unter den Crows, auch as a religious offering when they hold a „Medicine lodge,“ a great religious ceremonial.

The Crows haben einen Ehegebrauch, den Morgan bei mindestens 40 andern Indian tribes gefunden: when a man marries the eldest daughter in a family he is entitled to all her sisters when they attain maturity. (Survival of custom of punalua)

Polygamy allowed generally by usage unter allen American aborigines, never prevalent in irgend bedeutendem Mass wegen inability of persons to support more than one family. [158–160]

III) Gulf Tribes.

1) Muscokees or Creeks. The Creek Confederacy consisted of 6 tribes, viz:
Creeks; Hitchetes; Youchees Yoochees; Alabamas; Coosatees u. Natches. Mit Ausnahme der letzteren, admitted in ihre confederacy after their overthrow durch French, spoke all dialects der same language.

Descent unter den Creeks in female line, sachemship u. property of deceased persons hereditary in gens, worin intermarriage prohibited; die andren tribes hatten auch gentile organization; jetzt die Creeks partially civilized, political system, in a few years traces of their gentile organization will have desappeared.|

55

 Fehler bei Morgan, S. 161. Soll sein: ca. 680 persons to gens
Schließen
1869 Creeks numbered about 15,000, average von 550 persons to gens
.

Gentes der Creeks. (22) 1) Wolf. 2) Bear. 3) Skunk.
4) Alligator. 5) Deer. 6) Bird.
7) Tiger. 8) Wind. 9) Toad.
10) Mole 11) Fox 12) Raccoon
13) Fish 14) Corn 15) Potatoe
16) Hickory nut. 17) Salt. 18) Wild Cat.
19), 20) 21) 22) signification lost.

2) Choctas. Bei ihnen each phratry named; 2 phratries mit je 4 gentes, wie bei Iroquois.
Ist Phratry Divided People gentes: 1) Reed. 2) Law Okla. 3) Lulak. 4) Linoklusha.
IInd  " " Beloved People. 1) Beloved people. 2) Small people. 3) Large People. 4) Cray Fish.

Gentes of same phratry could not intermarry, but jede mit gentes der other; zeigt, dass wie bei Iroquois, the Choctas commenced mit 2 gentes, jedes jede davon nachher subdivided into 4. Descent in female line, Property and Sachemship hereditary in gens.

1869 – some 12,000, gives average per gens = 1500. 1820 residirten sie noch in their ancient territory, east of Mississippi, immigrated dann in Indian territory. – Nach Chocta usages property after the death of a man distributed unter his brothers and sisters and the children of his sisters, nicht under his children; could give his property to his children in his lifetime, then they could hold it against his gens.  Viele Indian tribes haben jezt considerable property in domestic animals, houses u. lands, owned by individuals; unter ihnen common practice to give it to their children during their live time life-time. Im Mass wie property wuchs, disheritance disinheritance of children began to arouse opposition to gentile inheritance u. in some of the tribes, u. a. bei den Choctas old usage abolished a few years since, right of inheritance exclusively vested in the children of defunct owner. Dies came, however, durch substitution of a political system in the place of gentile system, an elective council u. magistracy substituted to the old gvt by chiefs. Under previous usages wife inherited nothing from her husband and vice versa, nor he from her; but the wife’s effects divided among her children u. in default of them her sisters.

3) Chickasas. 2 phratries, Iste 4 gentes, IId 8.
Ist Panter Panther Phratry Gentes. 1) Wild Cat. 2) Bird. 3) Fish. 4) Deer.
IInd Spanish Phratry 1) Raccoon. 2) Spanish. 3) Royal. 4) Hush-ko-ni 5) Squirrel. 6) Alligator. 7) Wolf. 8) Blackbird.

Descent in female line, intermarriage in gens prohibited, sachemship and property hereditary in gens.

1869 they numbered 5000, average per gens about 400.

4) Cherokees, ursprünglich 10 gentes, wovon Acorn u. Bird now extinct.
Gentes: 1) Wolf 2) Red Paint 3) Long Prairie 4) Deaf (a Bird)                                             Descent in female line;
intermarriage in gens forbidden.
5) Holly. 6) Deer. 7) Blue 8) Long Hair

1869: 14,000, average per gens =750 1750. Jezt Cherokees u. Ojibwas exceed all the remaining Indians in U. St. in Anzahl of persons speaking the same dialect. Nicht wahrscheinlich, dass jemals in any part of North America 100,000 spoke same dialect; dies nur bei Aztecs, Tezcucans u. Tlascalans (tribes) u. selbst dies schwer zu beweisen  Bei Morgan, S. 164: at the epoch of the Spanish Conquest, upon trustworthy evidence
Schließen
upon Spanish evidence
. The unusual numbers of Creeks u. Cherokees due to possession of domestic animals u. welldeveloped well-developed field agriculture; now partially civilized, having substituted an elective constitutional gvt to the ancient gentes, unter dessen influence diese in raschem Verfall.

5) Seminoles: of Creek descent; said to be organized into gentes.
[160–164]

IV. Pawnee tribes.

Die Pawnees sollen nach Aussage des missionary Rev. Samuel Allis in 6 gentes organisirt sein: Bear, Beaver, Eagle, Buffalo, Deer, Owl.

If so, auch die Arickarees (deren village near dem der Minnitarees u. die die next congeners der Pawnees), die Huecos u. 2 od. 3 andre small tribes residing on the Canadian river: haben alle stets west von Missouri gelebt u. sprechen an independent stocklanguage. [164, 165]|

56

V. Algonkin Tribes.

Bei Entdeckung dieses great stock der American aborigines nahmen sie ein Area v. Rocky Mountains bis Hudson’s Bey Bay südlich vom Siskatchewun, u. dann östlich zum Atlantic, einschliesslich beider Ufer des Lake Superior except at its head u. beide Küsten des St. Lawrence,  Bei Morgan, S. 165: below
Schließen
südlich von
Lake Champlain. Südlich extended their area entlang der atlantischen Küste bis Nord Carolina u. down the East Bank des Mississippi in Wisconsin, Illinois bis Kentucky. Innerhalb der östlichen Section dieser immense region waren die Iroquois u. their affiliated tribes an intrusive people, einzige Conkurrenten der Algonkins innerhalb der boundaries dieser Section.

 Gliederungspunkt von Marx.
Schließen
a)
Gitchigamian Tribes (From the Ojibwa, gĭ-tchi’ (great) u. gä’-me (lake), the aboriginal name of Lake Superior u. other great lakes[)].

1) Ojibwas. Sprechen selben Dialekt, organized in gentes,  Bei Morgan, S. 165: of which the names of twenty-three have been obtained without being certain that they include the whole number
Schließen
wovon Morgan 23 gefischt
. In ihrem dialect the symbol or devise device of gens heisst totem (ebenso oft pronounced dodaim); z. B. a Wolf das totem der Wolf Gens.  Bei Morgan, S. 165: From this Mr. Schoolcraft used the words “totemic system” to express the gentile organization

(„History of Indian Tribes“): Zusatz von Marx nach Morgan, S. 179. Marx vermerkte diesen Titel auch in seinen bibliographischen Notizen am Anfang des vorliegenden Hefts.
Schließen
Hence hat Schoolcraft („History of Indian Tribes“) die gentile organization „totemic organization“ getauft.

23 gentes  Zusatz von Marx.
Schließen
(bekannt)
1) Wolf, 2) Bear, 3) Beaver 4) Turtle (mud) 5) Turtle (Snapping) 6) Turtle (little)
7) Reindeer 8) Snipe. 9) Crane 10) Pigeon Hawk 11) Bald Eagle. 12) Loon 13) Duck. 14) Duck. 15) Snake
16) Muskrat. 17) Marten. 18) Heron 19) Bull Head. 20) Carp 21) Cat Fish 22) Sturgeon u. 23) Pike.

Descent in male line, children belonging to their father’s gens. Ursprünglich female. Denn 1) die Delawares, anerkannt durch alle Algonkin tribes als einer der ältesten, von allen „Grandfathers“ genannt, haben noch descent in female line, wie ditto etsliche andre Algonkin tribes; 2) Evidence, dass noch 1840 descent in the female line with respect to the Sachem. 3) American u. missionary influence; den Missionaries, schien Erbfolge die den Sohn enterbte, ungerecht. –  Bei Morgan, S. 166, Fn. 2: An Ojibwa sachem, Ke-we’-kons, who died about 1840, at the age of ninety years, when asked by my Informant why he did not retire from office and give place to his son, replied, that his son could not succeed him; that the right of succession belonged to his nephew, E-kwä’-ka-mik, who must have the office. This nephew was a son of one of his sisters. From this statement it follows that descent, anciently, and within a recent period, was in the female line. It does not follow from the form of the statement that the nephew would take by hereditary right, but that he was in the line of succession, and his election was substantially assured.
Schließen
Wo wir das Wort »hereditary« anwenden, z. B. für nephew (seiner Schwester Sohn) eines Sachem, folgt nicht, dass letzterer »heriditary hereditary right« hatte im modernen Sinn, sondern dass er in line of succession (in der gens) u. his election substantially secured.

Property u. office hereditary in gens (worin intermarriage verboten); jetzt bekommen Kinder das meiste to the exclusion ihrer gentile kindred. Property u. effects der mother pass to the children, in their default to her sisters, own u. collateral. Ein Sohn kann jetzt seinem Vater folgen in office; wo several sons choice determined by election; the gentiles kann können nicht nur elect, sondern auch depose.

Jetzt Ojibwas some 16,000; gibt average für gens about 700.

2) Potawattamies. 15 Gentes. Alles andre wie bei Ojibwas. Die gentes sind:
1) Wolf. 2) Bear 3) Beaver 4) Elk. 5) Loon 6) Eagle 7) Sturgeon. 8) Carp. 9) Bald Eagle.  Zusatz von Marx.
Schließen
Loon = Tauchente.
10) Thunder. 11) Rabbit. 12) Crow 13) Fox. 14) Turkey. 15) Black Hawk.

3) Ojibwas, Otawas, u. Potawatamies Potawattamies subdivisions of an original tribe; when first known – confederated.

4) Crees; when discovered held northwest shore of Lake Superior, spread v. da zu Hudson’s Bey Bay u. dann westlich to the Red River to of the North; occupy später the region of the Siskatchevun Siskatchewun, ihre gentile organization lost; nearest related to the Ojibwas, gleichen ihnen closely in manners, customs, personal appearance. [165–168]

 Gliederungspunkt von Marx.
Schließen
b)
Mississippi Tribes. Western Algonkins, occupied eastern banks of Mississippi in Wiskonsin Wisconsin u. Illinois u. südlich bis Kentucky.

1) Miamis. 10 gentes. 1) Wolf. 2) Loon. 3) Eagle. 4) Buzzard. 5) Panther. 6) Turkey. 7) Raccoon 8) Snow
9) Sun. 10) Water

Ihre immediate congeners – Weas, Piankeshaws, Peorias, Kaskascias Kaskaskias early known unter collective name of Illinois, jetzt wenige, haben ihre alte Lebensart verlassen für settled agricultural life.

Die Miamis declining in numbers, changed condition, gentile organization quickly disappearing. When decline commenced, descent in male line,  Bei Morgan, S. 168: intermarriage in the gens was forbidden, and the office of sachem together with property were hereditary in the gens
Schließen
sonst wie vorher
.|

57

2) Shawnees (highly advanced); haben noch ihre gentes, obgleich sie substituted der gentile – civil organization. Ihre gentes erhalten sie für genealogical u. social purposes, sind:  Von Marx nachträglich nach Morgan, S. 179, hinzugefügt. Siehe die Sachanmerkung zu „(cf. über die Grandmother … oben p. 57)“, wo Marx auf diese Heftseite verweist.
Schließen
Shawnees formerly worshipped a female deityGo-gome-tha-mä’ (our Grandmother.[)⦘]

1) Wolf 2) Loon 3) Bear 4) Buzzard 5) Panther 6) Owl, 7) Turkey, 8) Deer 9) Raccoon. 10) Turtle. 11) Snake. 12) Horse 13) Rabbit.

Descent etc wie bei Miamis. 1867 1869 ihrer nur 700, about 50 per gens; früher 3–4000, was above the average of American Indian tribes.

Shawnees hatten a custom – wie auch die Miamis, ditto Sauks u. Foxes – of naming children in gens v. Vather Vater od. Mutter od. any other gens under certain restrictions.  Bei Morgan, S. 169: It has been shown that among the Iroquois […] – Marx verweist auf S. 35 des vorliegenden Hefts.
Schließen
Unter den Iroquois, sieh oben,
hatte jede gens its own special names für persons which no other gens had a right to use; in every tribe daher the name  Zusatz von Marx.
Schließen
(special, personal)
indicated the gens. So unter den Sauks u. Foxes „Long Horn“ is a name belonging to the Deer Gens; Black Wolf to the Wolf gens; in the Eagle gens the following are  Bei Morgan, S. 169: specimen names
Schließen
special names
: Ká-po-nä („Eagle drawing his nest“); Ja-ka-kwä-pe („Eagle sitting with his head up“); Pe-ǎ-tä-na-kä-hok („Eagle flying over a limb[“]).

Unter den Shawnees these names carried mit sich the rights of the gens to which they belonged, so that the name determined the gens of the person. Der Sachem musste in allen Fällen zu seiner gens gehören; wahrscheinlich der change von female to male line commenced thus: in erster Instanz to enable a son (der zur gens der Mutter gehörte) to succeed to his father, u. zweitens, to enable children to inherit property from their father. Empfing ein Sohn den Namen seines Vaters, so konnte er  Bei Morgan, S. 169: place him in his father’s gens and in the line of succession
Schließen
ihm in office nachfolgen
, subject to election. Aber der father had no control over the question; it was left by the gens to certain persons, mostly matrons to be consulted when children were to be named, with power to determine the name when to be given. Durch dies arrangement between the Shawnee gentes these persons had this power, could so carry the person into the gens to which the name belonged.   Kommentar von Marx. Diese Bemerkung übernimmt Engels im „Ursprung“ (MEGA² I/29. S. 33).
Schließen
Eingeborne casuistry of man to change things by changing names! u. Schlupfwinkel zu finden, um innerhalb der Tradition die Tradition zu durchbrechen, wo actual interest powerful motive dazu gab!⦘
Traces der archaic rule of descent existiren unter den Shawnees.

3) Sauks u. Foxes: diese tribes consolidated into one; alles andre wie Miamis; 1869 nur 700, about 50 per gens. Noch 14 gentes.

1) Wolf 2) Bear 3) Deer. 4) Elk 5) Hawk. 6) Eagle. 7) Fish. 8) Buffalo. 9) Thunder. 10) Bone. 11) Fox. 12) Sea 13) Sturgeon. 14) Big Tree

4) Menominees u. Kikapoos; diese tribes independent of each other, organized in gentes; property hereditary in the gens, but restricted to the agnatic kin in the female line. [168–171]

 Gliederungspunkt von Marx.
Schließen
c)
Rocky Mountain tribes. 1) Blood Blackfeet u. 2) Piegan Blackfeet. Jeder dieser 2 tribes in gentes getheilt, erster in 5, 2ter in 8.  Bei Morgan, S. 171: Several of the names […] are more appropriate to bands than to gentes;
Schließen
Namentlich unter den letzteren Namen (von gens), die mehr nach Bands als gentes riechen, wie
Web Fat, Inside Fat, Conjurers, Never Laugh, Starving, Half Dead Meat; aber nicknames for gentes superseded in some cases the original names. Descent in male line, intermarriage in gens prohibited. [171]

 Gliederungspunkt von Marx.
Schließen
d)
Atlantic Tribes.

1) Delawares, one of the oldest of the Algonquin Algonkin Tribes; when discovered, their home country region around and North of Delaware Bay[;] haben 3 Gentes: 1) Wolf; 2) Turtle. 3) Turkey, aber jede dieser gens gentes a phratry, da Wolf getheilt in 12 subgentes, each having some of the attributes of a gens; Turtle in 10 subgentes (2 fernere extinct), Turkey in 12 subgentes. The names der subgentes are personal, u. meist, wenn nicht alle, female;  Bei Morgan, S. 172: The names are personal, and mostly, if not in every case, those of females. As this feature was unusual I worked it out as minutely as possible at the Delaware reservation in Kansas, in 1860, with the aid of William Adams, an educated Delaware. It proved impossible to find the origin of these subdivisions, but they seemed to be the several eponymous ancestors from whom the members of the gentes respectively derived their descent
Schließen
sind betrachtet by the Delawares selbst (jezt at the Delaware Reservation in Kansas) betrachtet als their several eponymous ancestors
.  Bemerkung von Marx.
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Dies zeigt zweierlei: 1) wie die ursprünglichen Thiernamen der gentes Platzmachen können Personennamen; ⦗die Namen der ursprünglichen Gentes bleiben hier Wolf, Turtle, Turkey; aber die Segmentation der gens in subgentes nach den specific (personal) Namen der Stammmütter der Theile (Unterabtheilungen der Gensfamilien); so werden die ursprünglichen Thiernamen der gentes Namen von Phratrien u. die der subgentes von Personen (Mütter), ohne dass dieser change (wie bei male descent der Antiken) anything mit heroworship (als Urahnen) zu thun hätte⦘ Zweitens:
 Bei Morgan, S. 172: It shows also the natural growth of the phratries from the gentes. – Siehe S. 173: the evidence of the segmentation of original gentes
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zeigt sich hier natural growth von Phratry durch segmentation einer gens in several subgentes.

Descent bei den Delawares in female line  Zusammenfassung von Marx in eigenen Worten.
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u. alles andre archaisch
. (So die 3 original gentes could not intermarry innerhalb selber gens; in recent years the prohibition limited to the subgentes; so in Wolf  Bei Morgan, S. 172: gens
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tribe
z. B. die of same name cannot intermarry, wohl aber die of different names.) Auch die practice of naming children into the gens |58 of their father aufgekommen bei den Delawares, has introduced the same confusion of descents wie unter Shawnees u. Miamis.  Kommentar von Marx. Diese Bemerkung übernimmt Engels im „Ursprung“ wie folgt: „Dadurch entstand heillose Verwinung, der nur abzuhelfen war, und theilweise auch abgeholfen wurde, durch Uebergang zum Vaterrecht. ‚Dies scheint überhaupt der natürlichste Uebergang.‘ (Marx.)“ (MEGA² I/29. S. 33.)
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Dies scheint der natürliche Uebergang von female to male line: der confusion konnte nur durch den change Ende gemacht werden.⦘
American civilization u. intercourse gave shock to the institutions der Indians, ihr ethnic life so gradually breaking down.

Weil descent in female line, bei den Delawares wie Iroquois, office of Sachem v. Bruder to Bruder od. von  Zusatz von Marx.
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(mütterlichem)
Onkel zu Nephew  Zusatz von Marx.
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(Schwesterssohn)
[.] [171–173]

2) Munsees; offshot offshoot der Delawares, haben dieselben gentes: Wolf, Turtle, Turkey; female descent etc[.]

3) Mohegans; form part of the New England Indians, south of river Kennebeck, die all closely related in language, could understand each other’s dialects. Mohegans haben, wie Delawares u. Munsees – the Wolf, Turtle u. Turkey, each of which composed of a number of gentes, also break up v. original gens into several which remain united in a phratry. Die phratries bei den Mohegans cover the gentes of each u. die phratries must be stated, to explain the classification of the gentes. Descent in female line. ⦗auch so unter Pequots u. Narragansetts

I) Wolf Phratry 1) Wolf 2) Bear 3) Dog 4 Opossum
II) Turtle "  " 1) Little Turtle 2) Mud Turtle 3) Great Turtle 4) Yellow Eeel Eel.
III) Turkey "  " 1) Turkey 2) Crane [3) Chicken]

4) Abanakis Abenakis (bedeutet „rising sun [people]). Dies tribe more closely connected mit den Micmacs als den New England Indians south of the Kennebeck. 14 gentes, worin verschiedene the same as among the Ojibwas. Descent now in male line, prohibition of intermarriage in gens now much weakened, office of Sachem hereditary in gens. [173–175]

VI) Athapasco-Apache Tribes.

Ob die Athapascans des Hudson’s Bey Bay Territory u. die Apaches of New Mexico, die subdivisions eines original stock sind, organized in gentes, nicht definitely ascertained. – Hare and Red Knife Athapascans (in Hudson’s Bey Bay Territ.) – Slave Lake Athapascans in ditto.

Die Kutchin (Louchoux) der Yukon river Region  Zusatz von Marx. Siehe Morgan, S. 176, wo ein Brief von George Gibbs zitiert ist: the Northern Indians, the inhabitants of the Northwest Coast, extending from the Upper end of Vancouver’s Island into the Russian Possessions
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Northwest Territorium, British Northamerica, südlich von den ex-russischen Küstenniederlassungen⦘
sind Athapascans u. bei ihnen (nach Brief of late George Gibbs an Morgan): Unter den Kutchin „3 grades or classes of society (soll heissen totem, die aber in rank verschieden sein mögen[)]  Kommentar von Marx. – Zu seiner Verwendung von „caste“ bzw. „Kaste“ siehe Marx an Annenkov, 28. Dezember 1846 (MEGA² III/2. S. 73); Das Kapital. Erster Band (MEGA² II/6. S. 335, 360 und Fn. 82); L. Krader: The ethnological notebooks of Karl Marx. Assen 1972. S. 403/404 (Anm. 160).
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⦗u. in der Art, namentlich wo zum gens princip Eroberung hinzukömmt, können nach u. nach die gentes zur Kastenbildung Anlass geben? wo dann das Verbot der intermarriage zwischen verschiednen gentes ganz umkehrt die archaische rule der intermarriage innerhalb the same gens
a man does not marry into his own class, but takes a wife from some other; and that a chief from the highest may marry with a woman of the lowest without loss of caste.  Kommentar von Marx.
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⦗Den Begriff der caste trägt der Briefschreiber hinein u. interpretirt sich so, dass ein Mann nicht in seiner eignen gens heirathen kann, wohl aber in gens einer andren brother- od. cousin phratry; zeigt aber, dass sobald difference of rank zwischen den blutsverwandten gentes entsteht, dieses in conflict mit dem gentilen Princip geräth u. die gens in ihr Gegentheil, caste versteinern kann.⦘
The children belong to the grade of the mother.  Kommentar von Marx.
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⦗welches also der Rangunterschied zwischen gentes, ? Brüder u. Schwester Schwestern aller gentes finden sich in gentes jedes Rangs. Das Verwandtschaftsband lässt keine fixirte Aristokratie aufkommen, fraternity bleibt u. Gleichheitsgefühl[.]
The members of the same grade in the different tribes do not war with each other.

Kolushes der Nordwestküste,  Bei Morgan, S. 175: who affiliate linguistically though not closely
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linguistisch closely related
mit den Athapascans, haben gensorganization; Gentes haben Thiernamen, descent in female line; right of succession in female line von uncle to nephew, except the principal Chief, who is generally the most powerful of the family. [175, 176]|

59

VII) Indian tribes of the Northwest Coast.

In einigen dieser tribes – ausser den Kolushes – prevails gentile organization. See: Dall: „Alaska and its resources“, u. namentlich Bancroft: Pacific States, I, 109. [176, 177]

VIII) Salish, Sahaptin u. Kootenay Tribes.

Dies die principal stocks der tribes des Valley of the Columbia; ohne gentile organization. Dies war der initial point der migrations der Ganowánian family, spreading over both divisions des Continent; their  Bei Morgan, S. 177: their ancestors possessed
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possessors besassen
daher gentile organization, fell into decay and finally disappeared. [177]

IX) Shoshonee Tribes.

Die Comanches of Texas, zusammen mit Utah Ute tribes, Bonnacks Bonnaks  Zusatz von Marx.
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(Panacks?)
, Shoshonees u. some other tribes gehören dazu.

1859 (berichtet by Mathew Walker, a Wyandote halfblood, lived among the Comanches) hatten die Comanches 6 gentes:

Comanche tribe. Gentes. 1) Wolf. 2) Bear. 3) Elk 4) Deer. 5) Gopher.  Zusatz von Marx.
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(amerik. Erdeichhörnchen)
6) Antelope

Da die Comanches gentes, so presumption, dass auch die other tribes dieses stock.

 Bei Morgan, S. 177: This completes our review of the social system of the Indian tribes of North America, north of New Mexico.
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Hiermit schliesst Morgan ab mit den Indians North of New Mexico.
Ihre grössere Anzahl zur Zeit der europ. Entdeckung in Lower Status of Barbarism, der remainder in Upper Status of Savagery. Organization into gentes u. descent in female line erscheinen ursprünglich universal. Ihr system purely social; unit die gens, phratry, tribe, confederacy the remaining members der organic series. Selbes bei Aryan u. Semitic tribes, when emerging from barbarism; also system universal in ancient society; inferentially had a common origin – the punaluan group, giving origin to the gentes; all – the Aryan, Semitic, Uralian, Turanian u. Ganowanian Ganowánian families of mankind point to a common punualuan punaluan stock – with organization of gentes engrafted upon it – of which all were derived, and finally differentiated into families. [177, 178]

X) Village Indians.

1) Moqui Pueblo Indians; still possessed in possession of their ancient communal houses, 7 in number, near the Little Colorado in Arizona, once a part of New Mexico; living under their ancient institutions, represent type of Indian life von Zuñi  Zusatz von Marx.
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(pueblo) (Neu Mexico)
bis Cuzco  Zusatz von Marx.
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(North Peru)
[.] Zuñi, Acoma, Taos u. several other New Mexico pueblos haben selbe Struktur, worin gefunden von Coronado (1540–1542). Bisher nichts Nennenswertes studirt über ihre innere Organization.

Die Moquis organized in gentes: (9), as follows:

1) Deer. 2) Sand. 3) Rain.│4) Bear. 5) Hare. 6) Prairie Wolf.│7) Rattlesnake. 8) Tobacco Plant. 9) Reed Grass│

Dr. Ten Broek Broeck, Assistant Surgeon, U.S.A., lieferte dem Mr. Schoolcraft die Moqui Legend  Bei Morgan, S. 179: of their origin which he obtained at one of their villages
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über origin of their villages
. [„]Ihre  Bei Morgan, S. 179: Great Mother
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Grandmother
from her home, in the West 9 races of men, first the Deer [race] u. so weiter die übrigen gentes.  Bei Morgan, S. 179, Fn. 1: The Shawnees formerly worshiped a Female Deity, called Go-gome-tha-mä’, “Our Grand-Mother”.

Marx verweist auf S. 57 des vorliegenden Hefts.
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(cf. über die Grandmother die der Shawnees, oben p. 57)
Nachdem sie selbe gepflanzt on the spot wo nun die villages, verwandelte sie selbe (nämlich Dear Deer, Sand, Rain, Bear etc) in men u. diese built up the different pueblos; u. die distinction of races, Deer race, Sand race etc is still kept up. They believe in Metempsychosis u. say, nach Tod werden sie rückverwandelt werden in bears, deers etc.; government hereditary, aber nicht necessarily to the son of the incumbent; for if the they prefer any other blood relative, he is chosen.“  Bei Morgan, S. 179: Having passed, in this case, from the Lower into the Middle Status of barbarism, and found the organization into gentes in full development, its adaptation to their changed condition is demonstrated. Its existence among the Village Indians in general is rendered probable
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Here also gentile organization found in lower state of barbarism
, aber von diesem Punkt an, sowohl im remainder des North als im ganzen Süden keine definite information, except in regard to the Lagunas. Aber still traces left in the Early Spanish writers u. direct knowledge of it in a few later writers.

There are current traditions in many gentes, wie bei den Moquis, von transformation ihrer ersten progenitors aus dem animal, or inanimate object, which became the symbol of the gens  Zusatz von Marx.
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(totem)
, into men and women (so bei der Crane gens unter den Ojibwas). Ferner Anzahl von tribes, die abstain |60 from eating the animal, whose name they bear, doch dies far from universal. [178–180]

2) Lagunas. (New Mexico) Aus Address von Rev. Samuel Gorman an die „Historical Society of New Mexico“ 1860:

Each town is classed into tribes or families  Zusatz von Marx. Bei Morgan, S. 180, vor dem Zitat: The Laguna Pueblo Indians are organiyed in gentes […] as appears from an address
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(read gentes)
, and each of these groups named after some animal, bird, herb, timber, planet, or one of the 4 elements. Im pueblo of Laguna, mit about 1000 inhabitants, 17 dieser tribes; some are called deer, some rattlesnake, some corn, some wolf, some water etc[.] Children of same tribe as their mother. And, according to ancient custom, 2 persons of the same tribe are forbidden to marry; recently diese Gewohnheit nicht mehr so rigorös beobachtet wie anciently.  Their land is held in common, but after a person cultivates a lot, he has a personal claim to it, which he can sell to any one of the same community; or else when he dies it belongs to his widow or daughter; or, if he were a single man, it remains it in his father’s family.“ That wife and daughter inherit from the father is doubtful. [180]

3) Aztecs, Tezcucans u. Tlacopans, ditto the remaining Nahuatlac tribes in Mexico – folgendes chapter. [181]

4) Mayas of Yucatan.

Herrera: „General History of America“ spricht oft von „kindred“ mit regard to the tribes in Mexico, Central America u. South America, dass gens daraus hervorguckt.  Bei Morgan, S. 181: The early observers noticed
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Er u. die andern early Spanish observers
noticed that large numbers of persons were bound together by the bond of kin u. mention daher the group als „kindred“, weiter forschten sie nicht.

Herrera sagt u. a. von den Mayas  Marx gibt hier irrtümlicherweise den Verweis, der bei Morgan zu dem vorher zitierten Satz gehört.
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(Lond. ed. 1726. Stevens transl. III, 299)
: „they were wont to observe their pedigrees very much, and therefore  Zusatz von Marx.
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(!)
thought themselves all related and were helpful to one another … They did not marry mothers, or sisters-in-law, nor any that bore the same name as their father, which was looked upon as unlawful.“ The pedigree of an Indian under their system of consanguinity could have no significance apart from a gens. Sagt Tylor in his: „Early History of Mankind“: „The analogy of the North American Indian custom is therefore with that of the Australian in making clanship on the female side a bar to marriage, but if we go further down into Central America, the reverse custom, as in