July 18. 1868.

The Economist, 18. Juli 1868. S. 813/814.
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Trades Union and Shipbuilding.

See 9th Report. Trades’ Union Commission.

The Economist, 18. Juli 1868. S. 816/817.
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Russian Railways.

Despite all fuss, little done till now. Computation at end of 1867 only 2,880 miles opened for traffic, and that figure has not been much added to since. Less than 3000 miles represents all the open railways in an empire nearly 10,000 miles in extent, from Prussia frontier to the East of Asia. Many of the lines actually constructed are in unprofitable districts und only calculated to develop the resources of the country when their connections are made; or they have been constructed like the Warsaw and St. Petersburg line with a definite strategical purpose, and for no other end.

    Lines open for traffic:
  • 1) The Polish Lines, about 450 miles extent, and perhaps the most profitable of all.
  • 2) St. Petersburg and Warsaw line, 800 miles, and the St. Petersburg and Moscow line, 400 miles.
  • 3) Three lines from Moscow, viz.
    • Northward to a town named Serguievsk, 44 miles;
    • Eastward to Nijni-Novgorod, 275 miles;
    • South EastWard by Riazan to Voronej, 420 miles, with a branch from Riazan to Morchansk, 90 miles.
  • 4) A 4th line from Moscow by Orel to Koursk, part of a great „trunkline of the South“. 350 miles.
  • 5) A line from Riga in the Baltic to the town of Orel, intersecting the Warsaw and St. Petersburg line at Dunaburg, actually opened as far as Vitepsk only, but so far advanced that it may be considered finished throughout its whole length, 630 miles.
  • In addition there are a few disconnected branches –
    • from Helsingfors to Tavasthus in Finland;
    • from the Volga to the Don;
    • from Acsai on the Don to Grouchevka;
    • from Odessa to Balta and to Tiraspol.

The North remains completely severed from the South, and the East from the West, so far as the entire country South of Moscow is concerned. By a strange fatality the South has been hitherto neglected. The main objects of a Russian railway system are commercially the opening of roads from the Baltic to the Black Sea, by which the produce of the country traversed may be sent to the ports of either sea, and strategically the opening of roads from the heart of the country to the Western frontier; and with regard to both objects it is the South which is most important. It is the most productive district, and the most populous. At least, one trunk line from sea to sea may be opened in another year.

From Koursk, which is the Southern terminus of the trunk line of the South, two branches are to proceed to the Black Sea, one by way of Kiev to Balta and Odessa, the other by way of Kharkov to Taganrog on the sea of Azoph; and the former branch is well advanced. The works are divided into two sections. The first between Koursk and Kiev (290 miles) is expected to be opened before the close of the present year, and has actually been completed for a considerable distance.

The second between Kiev and Balta (also about 290 miles) ought to be finished at the same time, but delays, opening may be retarded.

Thus by the beginning of next year there will be a complete through line from St. Petersburg to Odessa by way of Moscow and Koursk, and also from Riga to Odessa by way of Vitepsk and Orel.|


The second branch from the trunkline of the South, viz. from Koursk by way of Kharkof to Taganrog on the sea of Azof is, however, little more than begun. A concession has been granted for its construction, and the inauguration of the works took place last spring, a term of 18 months being fixed for the completion of the embankment. The opening of the completed line hardly before 3 years hence.

More rapid progress has been made with a connecting line between these 2 Southern branches viz, from Balta by way of Elizabethgrad and Krementchoug to Kharkov – about 160 miles (viz. from Balta to Elizabethgrad) of the whole distance of 410 miles have been completed.

There will be many deficiencies even after the second branch from the trunk line of the South has been constructed

Ausserdem in construction some other lines. More important: Railway in Georgia, from Poti, on the Black Sea, to Tiflis, nearly 200 miles, now approaching completion. Intention to extend this line ultimately to the Caspian, but the construction of a line no farther than Tiflis will be sufficient to attract to a Russian road a considerable transit trade between Northern Persia and Europe, as well as develop the resources of the Province itself. Former: a short branch of about 20 miles from Kiev to the important market of Berdytchef, a branch of the Kiev Balta line, to Volostchisk on the Austrian frontier, at which point it is anticipated a junction will be effected with the Galician railway of Austria; and an extension of the Tiraspol line to Kichinef in Besserabia to be connected ultimately with the Austrian lines through Moldavia. None of these branches far advanced. Dasselbe gilt von branch from Petersburg to Helsingfors, which will unite Finland and the line already made there with the rest of the empire.

Perhaps the most important of all in this view is the projected line from Warsaw to Moscow, on which the preliminary works only commenced this year, under the immediate direction of the Government, in consequence of rather a sudden resolution. This is a purely military line, planned to establish a firmer hold on Poland and facilitate military movements against Austria or Prussia.

Taking into consideration the branch from near Kiev to the Galician frontier, there will be 3 railway roads at least from Central Russia to Western Europe, viz. the St. Petersburg and Warsaw line, the branch from Kiev, and this new line from Moscow to Warsaw – so that the strategical objects of a Russian railway system cannot but be well provided for. This Moscow and Warsaw line will also provide a short cut from the South of Russia to the German ports on the Black Sea, and even the German Ocean, while the Russians themselves are urging strongly its connection with the Russian port of Libau, which is the only one entirely open throughout the winter. But, on the whole, these lines do not promise to be  The Economist: very profitable
und it may be questioned whether the immediate future of Russian railways is not compromised by this renewed devotion to strategical lines. The guarantees on interest are already becoming very serious in amount, and unless met by the productiveness of the lines opened will render the railways altogether rather cumbersome than otherwise to the finances of the empire.


  • Inhaltsverzeichnis von Friedrich Engels
  • 1869 I Heft
  • Money Market. 1868.
  • Money Market Review. Jahrgang 1868.
  • The Economist. Jahrgang 1868. Nachträge
    • The Economist. Jahrgang 1868.
    • Inhaltsregister für 1868 Jahrgang. („Money Market Review“ und „Economist“.)
    • Kommentar zu George Joachim Goschen
      • George J. Goschen: The Theory of the Foreign Exchange. 7th edit. London 1866.
      • Friedrich Ernst Feller, Carl Gustav Odermann: Das Ganze der kaufmännischen Arithmetik
      • Inhalt.