8 February 1868.

Aus:
The Money Market Review, 8. Februar 1868. S. 148/149
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Aus  Titel von Marx notiert in „Heft 3. 1868“ der „Hefte zur Agrikultur“ (MEGA² IV/18. S. 729.12) und in Exzerptheften 1877 (IISG, Marx-Engels-Nachlass, Sign. B 139) und 1878 (IISG, Marx-Engels-Nachlass, Sign. B 148) sowie im Notizbuch 1878/1879 (IISG, Marx-Engels-Nachlass, Sign. B 152)
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R. Dudley Baxter: „National Income of the U. Kingd. 1868.“ (Macmillan et Co)

Nach Baxter folgende dimension of Population:

Persons
A) Upper and middle class 1) With independent incomes. 2,759,000
2) Those dependent. 3,859,000
Total 6,618,000
B) Manual labor classes 1) With independent incomes 10,961,000
2) Those dependent 12,130,000
Total 23,091,000
Total Estimated Population: 29,709,000

Nach demselben Baxter folgende Vertheilung amongst the various classes of the population:

Class A. Incomes (Annual) Persons Amount. £. St.
1) Great fortunes £5000 to £50,000 and upwards 8,048 £127,692,860
2) Moderate fortunes £1000 to £5000 47,228 84,284,210
3) Middle incomes £300 800 to £1000 173,036 88,730,580
4) Small Incomes a) £100 to £300 800 995,688 112,246,350
b) under £100 (below income Tax) 1,535,000 83,780,000
Totals: 2,759,000 2,799,000 £496,734,000
(Manual Labor) Class B. Incomes. (Annual) Persons. Amount. £. St.
5) Higher skilled labour and manufactures 1,345,044 £66,352,814
6) Lower skilled labour and manufactures 5,087,921 160,652,345
7) Agriculture and unskilled labour 4,528,720 97,639,481
Totals 10,961,685 £324,644,640
Grand Totals 13,720,685 £821,378,640
Average Income for each Person of independent means: Ireland Scotland England
£31 £53 68
For each person of the whole estimated population 14 231/2 32

Ireland, remarks der  Zusatz von Marx.
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Baxter, „presents the singular phenomenon of a decreasing population and an increasing income“. Its population diminished von 8 mill. in 1841 to 61/2 Mill. in 1851 (nearly 20%), and again in 1861 to 53/4 mill. (nearly 12%). Estimated that it has further declined in 1867 by 4%; yet the property charged to income tax has risen from 21 mill. in 1855 to 241/2 mill. in 1865, being increase of 16%.

Enormous disproportion of unskilled to skilled labor; 10 millions of Persons against 1,345,044. Ireland für sich genommen ist natürlich disproportion still greater.

In the East of London, sagt Baxter: „the dock labourers earn, in full work 15s. a week, but so great is the competition that even in ordinary years they are employed but little more than half their time. During the past year (1867) 5s. a week has been considered tolerably fortunate.“ The Silk weavers have been for years in a chronic state of distress. The men’s nominal wages are 12s. but their real earnings do not average more than 6s. a week. The cabinet makers of the Kingdom are set down as earning 30s. a week, but those at the East End of London, a very numerous body, are in the „slop trade“, and are ground down by the Jew dealers, who own what are called the „slaughter-houses“, in which advantage is taken of the necessities of the small „garret masters“, many of whom are not earning more than 7s. 6d. per week. „None but those who have examined the facts“, sagt Baxter, „can have any idea of the precariousness of employment in our large cities, and of the large proportion of their time in which they are out of work, or of the loss of time in many well paid trades from drinking habits.“ Those drinking habits are a fearful evil, … but, sagt die Money Market Revue, we have a strong impression that much of this evil arises |27 partly from overwork and underfeeding, and partly from the bad ventilation and bad drainage of the localities in which they are compelled to reside.

Do all these figures and details, sagt Money Market Review, furnish us with what they profess to give – namely an account of our national income as a nation? We are bound to say that they do not. „We are“, says Times, „all living upon one another, and each income is spent in making up a number of other incomes, and every shilling of each passes through 50 other incomes and contributes to swell them in the course of 1 year.“ To add up all these several incomes into a grand total, and call it the total or gross income of the nation, is merely to foster a delusion. A landowner with £5,000 a year might just as well add up the wages of his steward and household, the rents of his tenantry, and the profits of his tradespeople to make up an income of £20,000 a year. The net actual income of an individual shown by the total amount of his receipts after deducting all the necessary outgoings for keeping up the estate or source of his income. And the net annual income or wealth of a nation shown by the net amount in hand after deducting all the necessary outgoings for the maintenance of its State and the sustenance of its people. Dazu other facts to be considered, returns of exports und imports, amount invested of our surplus income in foreign loans and securities etc.

Aus:
The Money Market Review, 8. Februar 1868. S. 149.
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 Den Titel dieser Schrift notierte Marx in „Bibliographische Notizen zur englischen politischen Ökonomie 1864–1868 u.a.“ in „Heft 3. 1868“ der „Hefte zur Agrikultur“ (MEGA² IV/18. S. 728.23). Pattersons „The Science of Finance“ (Edinburgh, London 1868) exzerpierte er im April/Mai 1868 in „Heft zum fixen Kapital und Kredit 1868“ (MEGA² IV/18. S. 749–751, 755, 762–765, 793–802 u. 807/808).
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R. H. Patterson. „Railway Finance.“ (1868)

In past years the question was raised as to whether the State ought not to buy up the railways as a means of increasing its revenue. Now the question has changed its complexion, and the interference of the State is demanded chiefly in the interest of the railway Cos themselves, as a method of relief from pressing embarrassments.

Aus:
The Money Market Review, 8. Februar 1868. S. 171.
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U. States Currency.

Washington. Feb. 4. The Anti-Contraction Bill, suspending M’Culloch’s authority to contract the currency, finally agreed by both Houses of Congress, and is now law.

Aus:
The Money Market Review, 15. Februar 1868. S. 185.
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Manchester Trade. (Circular of B. Barbour and Brother.)

Month opened with better feeling, continued with few intermissions to its close. Aggregate business very large, not only clearing out stocks, but placing producers, particularly of the better qualities, under contract for the next 2 months. Operations mainly in the good adapted for India and China. Shipments thither continue in excess of 1866. These operations entered into, not so much for immediate as in anticipation of future demand for these quarters. Largely of a speculative character, through which prices unduly forced up, affording the speculator a later prospect of resale at a profit. Effect of such transactions to distract our market and to disarrange all ordinary calculations; they force spinners into the Liverpool cotton market to cover their contracts, stimulating an unhealthy action on prices there, at a time when the most reliable accounts from America promise an abundant supply.



Inhalt:

  • Inhaltsverzeichnis von Friedrich Engels
  • 1869 I Heft
  • Money Market. 1868.
  • Money Market Review. Jahrgang 1868.
  • The Economist. Jahrgang 1868. Nachträge
    • The Economist. Jahrgang 1868.
    • Inhaltsregister für 1868 Jahrgang. („Money Market Review“ und „Economist“.)
    • Kommentar zu George Joachim Goschen
      • George J. Goschen: The Theory of the Foreign Exchange. 7th edit. London 1866.
      • Friedrich Ernst Feller, Carl Gustav Odermann: Das Ganze der kaufmännischen Arithmetik
      • Inhalt.