April 25, 1868.

Aus:
The Money Market Review, 25. April 1868. S. 469/470.
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Falsification of Railway Accounts. Working Expenses.

There falsification under 2 heads, as estimates of future liabilities und statements of actual results. First evil meist in form of underrepresenting future capital outlay, z.B. Estimated cost of Midland approaches to London £2,216,000; kosten bereits £3,450,000 und werden noch viel mehr kosten.

Falsification of actual Results: selten by fictitiously augmenting revenue receipts, meist durch suppression of working charges. Z.B. sagt das Brighton Railway Investigation Committee of 1867, daß zu Revenue ought to have been charged:

Maintenance of way, works, stations £27,918
Locomotive Power 10,258
Carriage and Waggon Department 28,462
Law and Parl. Charges 44,682
Printing, new shares etc 5,250
Commission allowed on issue of stock to contractors 2,145
Interest upon expenditure for works in progress in 1866 175,178
Additional loss on Channel Island traffick 1,665
Total £295,558

By these means the directors were enabled to pay in ordinary dividends £215,718. Daher non payment of a dividend 1867.

Locomotive Power: Includes all cost of fuel, wages of drivers, cleaners and others (sometimes repairs of engines und tenders, gehört eher zu maintenance of rolling stock) Convenient and vicious deductions may here be made for the conveyance of materials used in construction of new works, such being charged to capital at arbitrary rates.

Maintenance of Way: Hier gross systematic falsifications. To show fictitious profits, the permanent way allowed to lie for years almost uncared for. Endlich all or part of the sum required charged to capital. Or this expenditure may be charged as „additional works“. If a viaduct falls in, the cost of rebuilding may be charged to capital. Improved rails or sleepers, or repairing and enlarging stations, all such items open to colouring which policy may dictate. When works destroyed or removed to make room for others, original cost of the old works, or of their removal, should be sustained by revenue. Schwer zu bestimmen cost of maintenance of way per mile, as it depends entirely on soil, traffic, and nature of the works. Laing, 1849, estimated such repairs and renewals on Brighton line at £265 p. mile p. annum; experience has shown this to be minimum charge.

Maintenance of Rolling Stock: Often charged to capital in small or large proportions; while disabled vehicles stand in the Co’s yards, and only really exist in reports furnished to the shareholders. Thus, on North British last half year deficiency of 2,319 vehicles now written off the stock. Charge for these renewals and repairs should in most cases equal, if not exceed, 9% p.a. on first cost. Nach paper read by Fletcher at Institution of Civil Engineers, annual charge on North Eastern should be 121/2% on cost of locomotives, 12% on cost of carriages, 61/2% on cost of waggons. No certain rule for the mileage, however; speed and burdens carried must influence the result.

„Salaries, office expenses, and directors fees“: generally include not wages to engine drivers and others, falling under head of locomotive power etc Any proportion that is thought fit, transferred to an open capital account as expenses on works in progress; thus the Metropolitan directors have charged 1/2 of office expenses.

„Canal, steamer, and sundry charges.“ (telegraph etc) May or may not include reserves for renewal and depreciation.

„Rents, Debenture and Preference Interest“: davon oft deducted interest on capital expended on works in progress. The more capital is returned as interest, the less will be employed on productive works. Sum thus distributed amongst proprietors, not profit, but return of capital. If capital may be dissolved in interest for one year, why not for 10?

„Loss or Gain on Issue of new shares and debentures“. Premium not to be placed to revenue, as losses are to capital.

Aus:
The Money Market Review, 25. April 1868. S. 474.
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Injuries consequent upon the vibration and Smoke of Trains.

Wenn Railways – (im Gegensatz zu Private Industry) als Use of Property sanctioned by Legislature in particular way – do damage to other Property durch vibration, smoke etc können sie, falls nicht case of negligence, nicht zu Schadenersatz angehalten werden. If every occupier of a house near a railway should have an action for the injury done to his nerves by the vibration and passing of the engines, railway fares would be raised to Public.|

Inhalt:

  • Inhaltsverzeichnis von Friedrich Engels
  • 1869 I Heft
  • Money Market. 1868.
  • Money Market Review. Jahrgang 1868.
  • The Economist. Jahrgang 1868. Nachträge
    • The Economist. Jahrgang 1868.
    • Inhaltsregister für 1868 Jahrgang. („Money Market Review“ und „Economist“.)
    • Kommentar zu George Joachim Goschen
      • George J. Goschen: The Theory of the Foreign Exchange. 7th edit. London 1866.
      • Friedrich Ernst Feller, Carl Gustav Odermann: Das Ganze der kaufmännischen Arithmetik
      • Inhalt.