2 February 1867. N. 1223.

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The Economist, 2. Februar 1867. S. 117.
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A Curious Effect of the Paper Currency in America. (From the New York Chronicle, financial paper.)

Failures.
Numbers. Liabilities in all the States. Dollars. Failures in Northern States only[.] Numbers. Dollars. Liabilities in Northern states only.
1857 4,932 291,750,000$ 4,257 265,818,000
1858 4,225 95,749,000 3,113 73,608,747
1859 3,913 64,394,000 2,959 51,314,000
1860 3,676 79,807,000 2,733 61,739,000
1861 6,993 207,510,000 5,935 188,632,000
1862 1,652 23,049,000
1863 495 7,899,900
1864 520 8,569,000
1865 530 17,625,000
1866 1505 53,783,000 632 47,333,000

Das Papiergeld durch seine depreciation takes from the creditor and gives to the debtor. During the war, the failures in the Southern States were not known; but taking the Northern States only, the lubricating influence of the deteriorating currency is wonderfully exemplified in the small amounts of failures in 1862, 63, 64 and 65.|

120

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The Economist, 2. Februar 1867. S. 117/118.
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Proposed Trades Unions’ Commission.

It would scarcely be possible for any inquiry to show how often the mere existence of Unions have caused masters to raise wages without a strike, or even a quarrel; how often the same fact has prevented them from lowering wages where they would otherwise have been glad of the opportunity; and it is in their silent exercises of influence that trade combinations have no doubt effected their greatest benefit. You could discover by investigation, how often overexercise has caused illness; but not practicable to make out, by an investigation, how often moderate exercise has prevented it. Unions, which put the labourers to some extent in the condition of a capitalist, must improve the terms they obtain from capitalists. This power is so great as often to be abused, and to lead the men into wasteful strikes. But the power itself is an obvious and great good. Poverty and inability to resist disadvantageous offers can never be an advantage to either labourer or capitalist; for if to either, then to both; and it is, of course, absurd to assert that a poor capitalist who cannot afford to wait for his market, is not in a very much inferior position to a rich capitalist who can.

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The Economist, 2. Februar 1867. S. 120.
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Aneline.

The dyers of Lyons and St. Etienne have addressed a petition to the minister of commerce, for a modification in the duties on alcohol, so far as concerns the dyeing trade. The preparation of the colours derived from aneline, „which“, they say, „tends to nothing less than to dethrone vegetable colours“, necessitates the employment of alcohol; but the Gvt requires the alcohol so used to be „denaturalised“ by the addition of 20% of coal tar, so as to prevent it from being turned to other purposes. This denaturalisation spoils its quality, hence Swiss dyers, able to use pure alcohols, are beating the French in the quality of their dyes. The French Alcohol too, though spoiled by the said addition, is taxed heavily, where that of the Swiss pays nothing; consequently, in price also, the Swiss defeat them. Whilst in France a kilogramme of light blue costs 445f., it only costs in Switzerland 205f. Nearly one half of the silks of Lyons and St. Etienne are now dyed by aneline.

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The Economist, 2. Februar 1867. S. 121.
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Manufacture of Beetroot sugar.

In the German States which formed the Zollverein:

1851–2 1859–60 1864–5 1865–66
1,261,372 cwts 2,915,196 3,413,214 3,698,825 cwts.

Owing to the employment of improved processes, and a better cultivation of the root, the quantity of sugar obtained from the beet is gradually increasing. In 1863–4 it was 71/2%; in 1864–5: 8.20, in 1865–6: 8.55.

In Belgium: 1863–4: 400,620 cwts; in 1864–5: 437,896, und in 1865–6: 831,037.
Sweden 217,517; 230,000; 300,000 
Holland 50,000 50,000  70,000 
Dagegen decreasing in Russia 1,413,263 1,534,505  1,000,000 
Austria 1,169,057 1,691,280  1,350,000.
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The Economist, 2. Februar 1867. S. 121.
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Tableau General du Commerce de la France. (issued for 1865.)

Total imports francs. Taken for consumption. francs
1860 2,657,300,000 1,897,300,000
1861 3,085,400,000 2,442,300,000
1862 2,899,200,000 2,198,600,000
1863 3,236,400,000 2,426,400,000
1864 3,407,400,000 2,528,200,000
1865 3,527,400,000 2,641,800,000
Total exports. francs French part thereof.
1860 3,145,500,000 2,277,100,000
1861 2,660,200,000 1,926,300,000
1862 3,049,900,000 2,242,700,000
1863 3,526,400,000 2,642,600,000
1864 3,921,200,000 2,924,200,000
1865 4,086,500,000 3,088,400,000 |

121

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The Economist, 2. Februar 1867. S. 131.
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Manufacturing Districts.

Manchester. Jan. 31. Large business done in yarns und goods for China und India. Doch producers still complain of prices not paying; consequently, many continued to consign largely, preferring that risk to selling in this market at a positive loss.



5) Railways.

  • English Railways (33) Making Minor Railways (39, 40) Non Paying Railways (98) London, Chatham, Dover (99) Its history (102, 103) Peto (104) Baxter (110) North British Railway (106–7) Brighton Railway (131) Railways’ Act 1867 (176) Panic in Railways (1867) (p. 180)

Inhalt:

  • London. 1868.
  • 1866 „The Economist“ (Jahrgang 1866) vol. XXIV.
  • The Social Economist, 1. Oktober 1868
  • „The Economist“ (Jahrgang 1866) (Fortsetzung)
  • Jahrgang 1867.
  • Register der obigen Auszüge aus dem Economist für 1866 und 1867.
  • The „Money Market Review“. Jahrgang 1866.
  • The Money Market Review. Jahrgang 1867.
  • Register Money Market Review Jahrgänge 1866 und 1867