Doppelt unterstrichen mit Rot- und Blaustift. Die Überschrift befindet sich nicht in der Quelle.
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Agrarian and Public Outrages in Ireland.

Irish Landlords and their apologists, have very dexterously attributed these outrages to the tithing system, as if any body upon earth could believe that such landlords as the generally are, in respect of 9/10 of the produce, would be kinder than ecclesiastical ones, were the they put into possession of the remaining 1/10 . Disturbance in Munster, in 1760, originated in the oppressive treatment of many landed proprietors, especially in their turning adrift vast numbers of the old tenantry of the province, „in order to throw many farms into one“, to obtain, if possible, a greater „surplus produce“. Numbers were thus at once deprived of their ancient holdings, probably the possessions of their forefathers; they were called  Hervorhebung in der Quelle.
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levellers;
and several years elapsed before they were put down. Gordon (History of Ireland, vol. II, p. 240, 241) thus describes this insurrection:

„It was occasioned by the expulsion of great numbers of labouring peasants, destitute of any regular means of subsistence by any other species of industry; while those who remained unexpelled, or procured small plots of ground, had no means of paying the exorbitant rents, even by labour, the pay of which was, by the smallness of the demand, beyond all due proportion low. The misery of these cottagers was completed when they were, by inclosures, deprived of commonage, which to many had been at first allowed. Numbers of them secretely assembled in the night, and vented their fury on objects ignorantly conceived to be the causes of their misery.“ (p. 113)

Insurrection of White Boys; its cause the intolerable oppression of the landed proprietors. (Campbell, Philosophical Survey of Ireland, p. 304, Wakefield vol. II, p. 9)

Hearts of Steel, in 1763 and 1764: likewise excited by the cruelty of the same class, through the medium of their subordinate agents, who demanded excessive fines, and racked the old tenants to an extent utterly beyond their power to pay. They were  Hervorhebung in der Quelle.
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cleared
. „The hapless peasants being thus abandoned, gave way to the impulse of their ungovernable passions, and vented their fury on those whom they considered as their oppressors. These commotions … arose from causes unconnected with public measures.“ (Wakefield, vol. II, 9, 10)

 Hervorhebung in der Quelle.
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Right Boys
appeared in about 1786, and marched in hostile bodies of hundreds and sometimes thousands … The Attorney General Fitz-Gibbon declared in his place in the Irish Commons on that accasion, that though tithes had been mentioned as the cause of it … it arose from „the peasants being ground down to powder by exorbitant rents, who were so far from being able to pay their dues to the clergy, that they possessed not food or raiment for themselves“. (p. 114, 115) These were again cleared and put down. (115)

 Zusatz von Marx.
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1821–22 (oder 1822)
… the tenantry on the estates of a great Irish absentee in the county of Limerick … Disturbances which have but lately terminated. 20,000 tenantry were thrown in a state of furious agitation. (Speech of R. Hon. Charles Grant, H.o.C., April 22, 1822) (p. 116 115)

 Doppelt unterstrichen mit Rot- und Blaustift.
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Der Hass gegen den Protestantismus und Gvt.
sehr einfach zu explain: they „are the religion and government, supported by 9/10, perhaps, of the great proprietors of Ireland. Not another word is necessary.“ (116)|

Inhalt:

  • Inhaltsverzeichnis von Friedrich Engels
  • Heft II. 1869
  • The Daily News, 20. Mai 1869
    • Notiz
      • Kaufmannsrechnung. (Continuatio)
      • John Leslie Foster, (of Lincoln’s Inn): An Essay on the Principle of Commercial Exchanges. London. 1804.
      • Ch. Lyell. Principles of Geology. 7th ed. London 1847.
      • Otto Hausner: Vergleichende Statistik von Europa (Lemberg. 1865) II. Band.
      • Michael Thomas Sadler. M.P.: Ireland; its Evils and their Remedies. 2nd ed. London. 1829