Mit Blaustift geschrieben.
The rage is for „clearing“ estates in Ireland from these human vermin, as a meritorious sort of act, and the chief means of relieving the country. (104)
An ancient expedient … To say nothing about those
wholesale „clearances“which the vast and successive forfeitures occasioned
in remoter periods, does not Dobbs inform us a century ago, and
when surely a redundant population could not be alleged, that it was the
practice to „dismiss whole villages of native Irish at
once“ and turn the poor wretches „adrift“.
(Dobbs Essay on the Trade and Import of Ireland
part. II, p. 7) Half a century after, we find, from
Bishop Woodward, that his
unnatural and inhuman custom was still continued. (Bishop Woodward, Argument for the Poor, p. 15) That it
is vigourously pursued at the present day, we need no proof; the only
novelty in the case is, that conduct which establishes a revolting compound
of the basest, most selfish and most unfeeling motives, is now often
represented as a meritorious deed, at least by the Emigration Committee and
some of its witnesses. (105) [»]Unlike all
others, whatever be their industrious pursuits, he (the little agricultural
tenant) is virtually at the mercy of one individual, his landlord; and if
that fails him, he is at once bereft of the means of subsistance, of his
daily labour, and of the house that shelters him and his family – which, if
he be an Irish tenant, in 99 cases out of a 100, he built
himself – Die Klammer mit Blaustift
Schließen ⦗„The houses are built, not by the landlord, but by the tenant.“ T. P. Bushe, transactions Royal Irish Academy vol. III, p. 153. See also Right Hon. Charles Grant’s Speech of the State of Ireland, April 22, 1822. Hansard, vol. VI, p. 1507.) Die Klammer mit Blaustift geschrieben.
Schließen ⦘ –; in a word deprived at once of the benefits of his past exertions, and of all his future hopes.« (105, 106)|
The difference, therefore, between emigrations and these
clearances is, that the latter exhibit a far more summary and
unfeeling method of effectuating the same purpose. In the former case „the
simple folk“ are to be solicited, and in some sort bribed
out of the country; means of escape are placed within their reach;
allotments in a land flowing with milk and honey are proffered (though,
alas! many of those who have gone forth have perished in the wilderness;)
but in these drivings, „clearances“ … , the exile is
involuntary. Whatever be the nature of the crime in the eyes of
those who hold that „they have no business to be where
they are) are“
(Malthus, Essay, p. 531), and who act upon that opinion,
the punishment is, in fact, a severer form of that
which is in most cases awarded as a sentence upon felony.« (p. 107)
Most of them have have to seek refuge elsewhere, some in this country Zusatz von Marx.
Schließen (England), some across the Atlantic; whither they were conveyed in vessels more crowded than slave-ships, in which many of them constantly expired, till even the humanity of strangers was excited, and the legislature of America interfered in their behalf, to protect them on their passage, and succour the survivors on their arrival. These became the slaves and drudges of America, till premature death, in some form or other, and generally in its most appalling one, poverty and desolation, terminates their hapless story … melancholy picture of the fate of the less fortunate exiles of Erin, whom, for at least a century past, these clearances have expelled from her shore. (108)
Die zweite Unterstreichung mit
Schließen Sir Thomas More: „Therefore is it that one covetous and unsatiable cormorant, and very plague of his native country, may compass about and enclose many 1000 acres of ground within one pale or hedge; or by wrongs or injuries they be so wearied, that they be compelled to sell all. By one means, therefore, or by other, either by hook or by crook, they must needs depart away, – poor, silly, wretched souls! men, women, husbands, wives, fatherless children, widows, woful mothers with their young babes, and the whole household, small in substance, and much in number, as husbandry requireth many hands. Away they trudge, I say, out of their known and accustomed houses, finding no place to rest in; all their household stuff which is very little worth, though it might well abide the sale, yet being suddenly thrust out, they be constrained to sell it as a thing of nought. And when they have wandered abroad till that be spent, what can they do but to steal, and then justly, pardie, be hanged, or else go about a begging? And yet then also they be cast into prison as vagabonds, because they go about and work not; whom no man will set at work, though they never so willingly prefer themselves thereto.“ (109, 110) (Utopia, vol. I, p. 59–61.) So far the authority of More on the effects of „clearing“ in England in his time which was before other and sufficient sources of employment were developed. (110) Of these poor fugitives, who, as he tells us, were necessitated to become purloiners, we learn that „72,000 great and petty thieves were put to death in the reign of Henry VIII“. (Hollingshed, Description of England, vol. I, p. 186)
In Elizabeth’s time „rogues were trussed up apace, and there was not a year commonly, wherein 3 or 400 of them were not devoured or eaten up by the gallows in one place or another“. (Strype, Annals, vol. IV). Strype, speaking of one county only, Somersetshire, says: „40 persons have been there executed, in a year, for robberies, thefts, and other felonies; 35 burnt in the hand; 37 whipped; 183 discharged, and those that were discharged were wicked and desperate persons. Notwithstanding this great number of indictments, 1/5 of the felonies commited in the county were not brought to trial, – owing to the remissness of the magistrates, or the foolish lenity of the people. The rapines commited by the infinite number of the wicked, wandering, idle people were intolerable to the poor countrymen, and obliged them to a perpetual watch of their sheepfolds, pastures, woods, and cornfields. The other counties in England were in no better condition than Somersetshire, and many of them were even in a worse; there were at least 3 or 400 ablebodied vagabonds in every county, who lived by theft and rapine; and who sometimes met in troops to the number of 60, and committed spoil on the inhabitants: if all the felons of this kind were reduced to subjection, they would form a strong army: the magistrates were awed, by the association and threats of the confederates, from executing justice on the offenders.“ (Strype Annals, vol. IV, p. 290) (p. 111) Sir M. F. F. M. Eden quotes this passage, as exhibiting the state of the kingdom at large, and plainly attributes it to want of employment for „the superfluous hands which were not required in agriculture[“] (Eden, vol. I, p. 110, 111), owing to the „engrossments“ Lord Bacon alludes to. (111, 112)
Berechnung der Staatspapiere u. Aktien.
- 1) Uebersicht der Münzen in Bezug auf
2) Feingehalt der
Münzen nach ihrer gesetzlichen Ausprägungin
4) Berechnung der
des Werths der Münzen.
I) Münzkursnotirungen nach Procenten u.
II) Münzkursnotirung al
- 1) Uebersicht der Münzen in Bezug auf ihr Gewicht.
IV) Berechnung des
Gold- u. Silberverhältnisses.
Merkantilische Berechnung der
Maaße und Gewichte.
I) Berechnungen, wodurch, nach einem gegebnen Preis
der Werth einer gegebnen Waarenmenge gefunden
II) Berechnung der
Preisparitäten od. Vergleichung der Preise
derselben Waare an verschiednen Orten.
- I) Berechnungen, wodurch, nach einem gegebnen Preis der Werth einer gegebnen Waarenmenge gefunden wird.
Berechnung der Seeschäden oder
Ch. I) General Nature and Effects of the
Balance of Trade
Ch. II. Operation of the Balance of Debt upon
Ch. III) Causes unconnected with the Balance of Debt
Regulating the Nominal Rates of Exchanges.
Chapter IV. Causes and Effects of the Exchange between
Grt. Britain and Ireland.
V Chapter. General Remedy for unfavourable
VI Chapter. Application of the Remedy in Ireland.
Appendix. N. VII. p. 208.
1) Vertheilung des Grundbesitzes.
2) Verhältniß der Zahl der
Grundbesitzer zum Flächenraum.
3) Schuldbelastung des
4) Agricole Bevölkerung.
5) Verhältniß der industriellen Bevölkrung zur
6) Verhältniß der Industriellen Bevölkerung zur
- B) Bodenerzeugnisse.
b) Reis (blos aus 3 Staaten Angaben)
c) Hülsenfrüchte. Hectoliter.
- e) Runkelrüben.
f) Stoppel- u. Futterrüben.
g) Kopfkohl (Kraut.)
- i) Rosinen (Cibeben u. Korinthen)
- k) Oel.
- l) Flachs.
- m) Hanf.
q) Heu. (Angaben aus 8 Staaten)
- a) Getreide.
Bodenwerth. (Angaben aus 15 Staaten)
Totalwerth der Bergbauproduction. Europas.
Zahl der Bergleute.
Recapitulation der Urproduction. Jh. Gesammtwerth
A) Zahl der Fabriken. (Werthlos. Oft auf dem
Continent mit 2 bis 3 Arbeitern shop als Fabrik bezeichnet)
B) Zahl der Dampfsmaschinen.
c) Zahl der Fabrikarbeiter.
D.) Zahl der Handwerker.
- E) Totalwerth der Industriellen
- A) Zahl der Fabriken. (Werthlos. Oft auf dem Continent mit 2 bis 3 Arbeitern shop als Fabrik bezeichnet)