6) Verhältniß der Industriellen Bevölkerung zur Totalbevölkerung.

In ganz Europa industrielle Bevölkerung zur Totalbevölkerung = 19,3%.
I Kategorie.
1) Großbritannien 48,8%
2) Kgch Sachsen 46,3%
3) Belgien 38%
4) Schweiz 31%
5) Frankreich 30%.
6) Preussen 29,2%.
7) Würtemberg 26,9%.
II Kategorie:
1) Niederlande. 23,8%
2) Hessen-Darmstadt 21,8%
3) Baiern 21,5%.
4) Nassau 21,2%.
5) Hessen Kassel 19,8%
6) Baden 19,6%
7) Italien 17,2%.
8) Hannover 16,2%.
III Kategorie.
1) Oestreich 12,9%
2) Spanien 12,6%
3) Polen 11,9%
4) Dänemark 10,9%.
IV Kategorie.
1) Mecklenburg 7,9%
2) Portugal 6,7%
3) Schweden 6,5%
4) Rußland 6,3%
5) Norwegen 5,4%
6) Griechenland 5,3%
7) Türkei 5,1%.|

 Doppelt unterstrichen mit Rot- und Blaustift. Die Überschrift befindet sich nicht in der Quelle.
Ecclesiastical Confiscation as means of relief for Ireland.

Er sagt mit Bezug auf O’Connel’s Catholic Emancipation: »Privileges, however regulated, the exercise of which appertain practically to the few, can never feed a starving population.[«] (171, 172)

None can be so weak as to suppose, that were the tithes of Ireland abolished to-morrow, and all the glebe lands of the country confiscated, the spoil would be bestowed in the wretched cultivators. … the rent of the land thus exonerated would be advanced to the full amount of the difference; nay … far beyond the amount. (173) A branch of the Irish legislature passed long ago a resolution exonerating all the island from agistment tithe; an act of audacious spoliation … in the advantages of which the little cultivator never did nor ever will share. (173) In the barony of Rathvilly, out of the 49,745 English acres … but 65 acres of glebe; it is reckoned of one one of the most fertile in the country: the whole appears to be titheable; the total amount of tithes is 3156l. 9s. 71/2d., or nearly 15d. farthing per acre, or, as the reports states it in Irish measure, 2sh. 1/2d. ([173,] 174)

Most of the property of Ireland is of this protestant pedigree (d.h. bestowed for the purpose and on the condition of supporting that religion), though some of it would now, it seems, be very glad to bastardise its ancestry. (175) The church property, were it seized, would inevitably find its way into the possession of the great proprietors; and of these, as certainly, a large proportion would be absentees, – causing another immense sum to be added to that which is at present abstracted from the country, and expended elsewhere. (176)

The system of collecting tithes in kind is but the continuation of the metairie system which once prevailed universally … the landlords in such case had usually the half, the clergymen 1/10 of the produce. (182) Even the revenues of the country, at least some of the most productive ones, continued, till within these few centuries past, to be paid in kind, particularly in wools. (183) the landlord should in all cases pay the value of the tithes to the incumbent. (185) The property possessed by the absentees conferred on the condition of personal residence. Unter Edward III, z.B. 1368 in ordinance regarding Ireland; (p. 188) Richard II , law über diese Residence. (p. 189) Ditto another law of the same period, fining absentees 2/3 of their estates; revived under Henry VIII . (Leland, History of Ireland) Alles evaded. In the time of James I , the entire lands of all absentees were vested in the crown. In 1715 the Irish parliament taxed the pensions, salaries etc, of all absentees 4sh. in the pound, which tax was afterwards repealed … because the dispensing power with which the crown was invested rendered it a nugatory measure. In 1773, even the ministry proposed a tax of 2sh. in the pound on the real estates of all absentees; lost by a small  Sadler: majority
. (189)

»The wages of labour have a constant tendency to accommodate themselves to the actual average expenses of those rendering it … the proposal to the working classes, that they should diminish their daily expenditure, in order to save money, would only have the effect, if attended to universally, of decreasing the remuneration of their labour precisely in the same proportion as they had decreased their comforts.[«] (p. 202)

Malthus Lügen über Schweden. (224, 225 sq.)

[»]At the very period when, according to Mr. Malthus, the settlers amounted to only 21,000 21,200, and were in such favourable circumstances as to „increase with a rapidity“, as he supposes, [„]almost without parallel in history“, we know that the poor had to be legally sustained.« (238) („Collections of the Massachusettsʼ Historical Society, vol. VI)

Französischer Pauperismus und Malthus  (p. 243, 244.) Spain, Italy, Portugal (p. 246–250) Netherlands (p. 253–255) Malthus und English pauperism [(]p. 257–260)|


»There is included in the amount returned  Zusatz von Marx.
(English Paupers)
, as expended on the relief of the poor, a vast sum, which is, to all intents and purposes, the wages of necessary labour; and amongst the number returned as paupers many are active labourers, in full and constant employment. … it is the result of a conspiracy, against which the poor are utterly powerless, „absorbing“ the whole of the labourers of entire parishes, and extending to many counties, especially those where the poorrates are represented as the highest, and paupers as the most numerous. This pernicious system has grown up principally within the last quarter of a century, or during the period we are examining. (260, 261)

Religious endowments for the Poor „absorbed“ at one time 1/3 of the whole kingdom. (Cotton, Abridgement of the Records in the Tower. Camden, Britannia, 1637. Spelman, [„]De non Temerandis ecclesiis“.) … These, however, Henry VIII seized, and confiscated; promising, as far as the poor were concerned, to establish a better system of their ruins, saying to his obsequious parliament, „ If I should suffer the  Hervorhebung in der Quelle.
poor and miserable
to be unrelieved, you might well say, that I being put in so special a trust, as I am in this case, were no trusty friend to you, nor charitable to my enne christen.“ He fulfilled his trust by seizing all their permanent funds (many of which are in the possession of those who now inveigh against all national charity,) and put the poor upon the (illegal) Scotch plan, i.e. upon public beggings upon Sundays and holidays. (27, Henry VIII) How well it answered the universal distress – the whippings and cauterizings that ensued – and, above all, the execution of above 70,000 poor wretches, in his reign, principally for thieving, sufficiently attest. (285)

Lord Kaimes argued that the poorlaws have a positive tendency to depopulate the country. (295, 296)

Malthus, the Emigration Committee, about „the poorrates“ that „would very soon absorb all the estates“. (Emigration Report, part III, p. 31.) (p. 296, 297)

As to the term „absorbing“ rents, now so hackneyed, what, I would ask, is it that Ireland wants, but that some part of its rental should be absorbed? (299 298)

Bishop: Richard Woodward, L. L. D.: „An Argument in support of the right of the Poor in the Kingdom of Ireland to a National Provision“ (written 1768), third edition 1785. (cf. p. 300, 301, 302, 303)

The want of a Provision for the Poor of Ireland (and I will include those of Scotland also) is a grievous injury to the working classes of  Sadler: England
. They are injured by the market of labour being overstocked, and greatly depressed by the multitudes who are annually making this country their asylum; in the harvest-field, in the factory, in short, in every sphere of industry, the English labourer and workman finds himself interfered with, and his remuneration reduced, if not himself thrown actually out of employed, by this constant and vast emigration. (307) (308)

Among the genuine offspring of absenteeism is the system of subletting. (309)

Cultivated etc Land in England, etc, Ireland. p. 317.

The cool proposition of Ricardo … that the poorer lands of the country should go out of culture, involves … loss of labour and destruction of property to multitudes. Such lands confessedly require the most labour; they are the possessions of the smallest proprietors; and are, generally speaking, as inferior in quality as they are limited in extent, compared with the rich abbey lands and ancient inclosures of the great landowners. (321) (322)

Agricultural and not agricultural classes in England. (327) (328) (329) (330, 331) (passim–339, incl.)

[»] Dearness of Corn … not true. Corn, contrasted with almost every other product of human labour, is far cheaper than it was in past times: I say, of human labour; for the fields are not, as yet, tilled by steam, nor the harvests gathered in by complicated machinery.« (p. 340. Sieh ibid.) (340–342)

In February 1822 schrieb Earl of Liverpool die agricultural distress der overproduction zu, dagegen 1826 sprach er von „famine-price“. Nun war die difference in bushel of wheat von damals und 1822, Unterschied not quite, a penny a bushel. ([322,] 343) (cf. p. 344, 345)

Raleigh’s Works (1751) Cf. on Prices on Corn and Protective Duties p. 350, 351, p. 353.

Schweden und Malthus , p. 357 Note a)

A large and growing population … diminishes the frequency and severity of such calamities (accidental scarcities) … variations in climates, and seasons are, as far as we yet know, the sole causes of variations in the produce of land equally cultivated. And what is it that meliorates climate, and mitigates and equalizes the seasons, but cultivation? Universal cultivation, therefore, is not merely the means of rendering the different countries more salubrious, – but it becomes the best, and indeed the sufficient security which nature affords for an equal, as well as an abundant produce. (358) to throw a portion of our lands out of cultivation would be to render the rest less certainly productive. (359)

A deficient supply enhances prices far beyond a mere arithmetic proportion; and – an excessive one has, inversely, a similar effect. (368)

No doubt: let famine and its concomitant pestilence be free, and it will find its own level, and regulate itself. (368)

To produce a given value in agricultural produce, and corn above all the rest, requires at present a far greater number of hands than to produce the same value, on the general average, in manufactured articles . … in agriculture there have been few inventions for „shortening human labour“, of great practical moment, since the days of Triptolemus. But even |[129] before these recent mechanical discoveries had been generally introduced, A. Smith said, „no equal capital puts into motion a greater quantity of productive labour than that of the farmer“ (book II, ch. 5); or, in other words, employs and rewards more human beings. (371, 372)

Als Grund giebt man »that cheap living is necessary to support manufactures and commerce.[«] (374) Aber das Gegentheil wahr. Foreign trade immer gross wo living dear. Holland, England. (375, 376) France feeds dearest, with the exception of England, of any manufacturing nation of Europe. (377)

Complaints seit Yarrenton (1677) über our ruin by high price of provisions; ditto Dobbs, Essay on Trade, 1729, Webber, Decker etc. (379 Note a)

Ueber Zusammenhang of high price of provisions and industrial developments. Locke, Sir Will. Temple (Works, vol. I,) Cary, ferner „Vindication of Commerce and the Arts) Arts“, Petty, Child, Gee etc., Franklin. (380–382) „The facility with which food is produced,  Hervorhebung in der Quelle.
the growth of industry and the arts.[“] (382. Malte Brun. Geogr. book XXIII, p. 602)

Cheap prices are contended for, in order that low wages may be enforced. (382)

If our foreign trade can only prosper by enabling our wormen workmen to live  Hervorhebung in der Quelle.
as cheap
, … it can only continue to do so, by necessitating them to live as  Hervorhebung in der Quelle.
as their foreign rivals. (384)

the depression of these would only be the elevation of others, which is just what our political economists by by things finding their own level. (387)

In many parts of India the produce of the lands, after the harvesting, collected into a heap, from which the various claimants take their respective shares. This, however disguised by the artificial expedients of money or paper payments, is virtually the case everywhere. (389, 390)

talking about „the forced cultivation of the inferior soils“, – and pray what cultivation is there that is not forced? – it is intimated that they should go out of that state … what is the amount of the „inferior soils“? … Even in the Pays-de-Waes „incontestably the richest part of Flanders“ and consequently of Europe, – „three-eights only are considered good“ (Radcliff, Report of the Agriculture of Flanders, p. 162), certainly nothing like so large a proportion could be so denominated in England. (394, 395)

the little freeholders of the kingdom … principally owning the worser soils, and the great landed proprietors the richer tracts of country. (396)

Ireland … is almost exclusively agricultural; how she would be „benefited“ by having the present protection of her industry and products withdrawn, and ten times the number of her population admitted as her rivals and competitors in the British market, is not explained.

Authorities rise into notice, not for their solidity and truth, but like Aëronauts, on the principle of levity. (404)

He (der working man) has ever been informed and assured that these things  Zusatz von Marx.
⦗wie Maschinen etc⦘
were all for his advantage, especially when he has thought otherwise, and been turbulently disposed; but he has been the truer prophet and political economists economist; his labour has become less and less valuable, till he is at length pronounced, on high authority, to be redundant; and measures are at this instant being projected to send him out of his country. Inventions, which retain the pleasing appellation of „machines for shortening human labour“, are, to all intents and purposes, become machines for supplanting it as far as possible; in one sense, indeed, they are appropriately named, for they have the effect of shortening life. (409, 410) „All the workmen of England would be turned into the street, if the manufacturers could employ steam engines in their place at a saving of five percent.“ (Edinburgh. Encyclopedia, in verb, Political Economy)

Nehmen wir the same county (Lancashire) und vergleichen an agricultural and a manufacturing hundred. The numbers in each, at the ages specified, are calculated at a radix of 10,000 children under 5 years of age, and are proportioned to the census of 1821, as then discriminated into ages:

Ages. Hundred of Lonsdale Hundred of Salford Difference.
North of the Sands. Manufacturing.
Under 5 10,000 10,000 0
5 to 10 9,088 8,180 - 908
10 to 15 7,451 7,481 + 30
15 to 20 6,588 6,438 - 105
20 to 30 10,003 9,781 - 222
30 to 40 7,967  7,046
- 921
40 to 50 5,841 5,050 - 791,
50 to 60 4,486 3,130 - 1356
60 to 70 3,631 1,838 - 1793
70 to 80 1,862 792 - 1070
80 to 90 585 177 - 408
90 and upwards 69 12 - 57.

This table, exhibiting so astonishing a difference in the ratio of mortality, does not include the great town of Manchester … She (nature) has not admitted into her calculations either infant or incessant labour. Man, excited by the inordinate thirst of gain, has, to his disgrace, resorted to both, and begins to be punished … by means of that overproduction which occasions the periodical recurrence of those distresses which, it is to be feared, will be thus increased, if not perpetuated. … the legislature should interfere; not, indeed, by proscribing human ingenuity, or its application, but by prescribing, equally for the advantage of all parties, the proper age and periods of human labour. (Note a, p. 410[, 411].) Things would, indeed, find their own level … the level of universal depresssion. (414)|


Unavailing … the present proposition of deporting the people. (416)

Grattan, im H.o.C. für die Cornlaws (1815): „You know that it was the policy of your ancestors to destroy the manufactures of Ireland, and it was the tendency of the Union to direct her capital to gross produce. Have you, then, driven Ireand out of manufacture, and do you now propose to drive her out of tillage?[“] (p. 418, note b)

It has been distinctly disproved, that the distresses in Ireland are attributed to excessive numbers, in as much as these distresses existed, and in a still higher degree, when the population was notoriously scanty; and inasmuch as notwithstanding its augmentation, the increase in all the necessaries of life has increased in a far greater ratio, till, in relation to the products and the people of the island, it is the former and not the latter that are redundant. (420)

Vgl. die Tabelle, p. 423; beweist »the fecundity is greatest where the inhabitants are thinnest … und where the population is in the easiest circumstances, the greatest proportion of the children are there preserved … the proportionate fecundity of the towns of England … on the average determined by their size. (424)

Cities and towns of Ireland, Tabelle, p. 425.

Provinces and counties. Tabelle, p. 426.

Even in Ireland that district is the happiest … which is the best peopled. (427) Cf. p. 428, 429.

The provinces … in point of comfort and wellbeing, in precise conformity with the density of their population, and inversely to their prolificness: Ulster – Leinster – Munster – Connaught. (429)

A country is prosperous, or otherwise, in reference to that necessity of exertion which numbers of inhabitants call into action, rather than from natural fertility of soil, or extent of territory. (Dr. Campbell, Historical Sketch etc, p. 371) Ulster … at the head of the provinces … in regard to inhabitants, though the most affluent, is … „the most mountainous and barren part of the kingdom“. Connaught … the worst peopled, and confessedly the most wretched part of the country, is nevertheless „the sweetest soil of Ireland“. (Spenser’s View of Ireland. Works vol. VI, p. 116. Dobbs says. „Connaught is, in most places, very fertile“) (p. 430) In Ulster 407 inhabitants on the Irish mile; in Connaught, only 263, or about 20 acres to every family! and where, by the by, we are told, on indubitable authority, that the distress was at least as great as at present, when there were 20 acres to each individual. (Sieh Dr. Smith, Topographical History, p. 75, 76. He exclaims: „Is it not amazing, that the most fertile part of Ireland, washed by so noble a river as the Shannon, cannot support its people with bread.“ (432)

Sieh Table, p. 435, ditto p. 436.

Nach Herrn Malthus : The greater the density of the population, the more the preventive check prevails … (knowing, as he aknowledges, that the „positive“ ones have declined …) he calculates its prevalence by simply dividing the population by the number of the marriages, and if these happen to be in a somewhat smaller apparent proportion than formerly (which, however, is rarely the case), he reckons the point settled: totally leaving out of his consideration the great increase, which has, in the interim, taken place, in the expectation of human life, as it is called, which must occasion a corresponding increase in the co-existing population from the same number of births. Just in the same manner, in calculating the comparative prevalence of this check, in different countries, he has quite forgotten that the duration of human life, which varies so materially (in some of them so much as a third, taking his own authority,) is an essential ingredient in the calculation. (438, 439) Supposing we were to calculate the prevalance of the preventive check for a nations nation of antediluvians, stationary in numbers, and living to the age of a millennium each, one annual marriage, it is evident, could only take place in every 2000 of the inhabitants; though every soul of them should enter into that state, and, consequently, „moral restraint“, as it is facetiously denominated, should have no existence whatever amongst them. (439)

Cf. p. 440–442 (wo Tabelle.) p. 443, p. 444 (Tabelle), p. 445). p. 446–448.

Malthus and Vaccination. p. 450. p. 451 (Tabelle) p. 453 (Tabelle)

Who are the real, culpable vagrants, ye imperial legislators, about whom ye ought to bestir yourselves? (456)

Surely, Ireland, is the last of all countries upon earth that ought to permit its people to starve from want of food, or suffer for want for employment. As to the former, its surplus produce, even now is probably greater than that of any other country in the world of equal extent; and its surface might, on the very lowest calculations … sustain in plenty far above 10 times the number of inhabitants that it now nearly starves; while „the wastes of the sea“, to repeat Lord Bacon’s expression, by which it is encircled, remain almost totally untouched. (456)

„For this island, it is endowed with so many dowries of nature, considering the fruitfulness of the soil, the ports, the rivers, the fishings, the quarries, the woods, and other materials; and, especially the race and generation of men, valiant, hard, and active, as it is not easy, no, not upon the continent, to find such confluence of commodities, if the hand of man did join with the hand of nature.“ (Works, vol. III. p. 321) 321).

Proficness Prolificness of the U. St. p. 464)


  • Inhaltsverzeichnis von Friedrich Engels
  • Heft II. 1869
  • The Daily News, 20. Mai 1869
    • Notiz
      • Kaufmannsrechnung. (Continuatio)
      • John Leslie Foster, (of Lincoln’s Inn): An Essay on the Principle of Commercial Exchanges. London. 1804.
      • Ch. Lyell. Principles of Geology. 7th ed. London 1847.
      • Otto Hausner: Vergleichende Statistik von Europa (Lemberg. 1865) II. Band.
      • Michael Thomas Sadler. M.P.: Ireland; its Evils and their Remedies. 2nd ed. London. 1829