5) Verhältniß der industriellen Bevölkrung zur Agricolenbevölkerung.

In ganz Europa die industrielle zur agrikolen Bevölkerung = 1 : 3,03.

Starkes Vorherrschen der industriellen Bevölkerung in 6 Staaten:
Industrielle zur agricolen Bevölkerung: in Great Britain = 1 : 0,7.
Kgch. Sachsen = 1 : 0,7.
Belgien = 1 : 1,16.
Preussen = 1 : 1,65.
Frankreich = 1 : 1,74.
Schweiz = 1 : 1,68.
Ziemliches Gleichgewicht in 10 Staaten:
Niederlande = 1 : 2,17.
Hessendarmstadt = 1 : 2,57
Würtemberg = 1 : 2,23
Nassau = 1 : 2,9.
Hessen-Kassel = 1 : 2,94
Baiern = 1 : 3,02.
Baden = 1 : 3,22
Italien = 1 : 3,75
Hannover = 1 : 4
Kirchenstaat = 1 : 4,4.
Entschiedne Unterordnung der industriellen Bevölkerung in 11 Staaten:
Spanien = 1 : 5,45
Oestreich = 1 : 5,6
Polen = 1 : 6,5
Dänemark = 1 : 7,2
Mecklenburg = 1 : 9,7|[66]
Griechenland = 1 : 9,85
Portugal = 1 : 10,7.
Schweden = 1 : 11,9.
Rußland = 1 : 12,3.
Norwegen = 1 : 13,8.
Türkei = 1 : 14,25.

 Doppelt unterstrichen mit Rot- und Blaustift.
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Large and small farms.

Supposing they can make it out clearly that 1/2 of the hands now employed in cultivating the land, would, if the moiety were turned adrift, leave rather more surplus produce than is now obtained, it is obvious that that moiety must take refuge somewhere; the manufacturing districts must receive them, most of which, it is alleged, and I fear truly, are overpeopled at present, and from the operation of this very cause. (117)

»With the exception, perhaps, of the better preservation of game, in all other respects they  Zusatz von Marx.
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(the large farmers)
have been prejudicial to the owners.[«] (119)

Smaller rents are invariably paid for the larger farms. (119) (Complete English Farmer; Winifrey: Rural Improvements; Dr. MacCulloch, Highlands.)

The poorrates in the agricultural districts where they  Zusatz von Marx.
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(large farmes)
prevail infinitely outweighs the paltry saving of keeping a few farmhouses in repair. (120) (Report on Labourer’s Wages. 1824) (ordered to be printed 4 June 1824)

Little State of Lucca the most densely populated independent district in the civilised world. (bereits in Addisons day, see his Italy, p. 308, the most thickly peopled state in Italy). Cf.

Simond, Travels in Italy, p. 574; Forsyth, Remarks on Italy. (Letztrer sagt p. 32: „Every state in the Peninsula is productive, or otherwise, in proportion to the number of farmers on a given space of land, equally good.“ (125)

Piedmont. (222 people on □ mile, in Great Britain 162) see: Chateauvieux: Description of the Rural Manners and Economy of Italy. (p. 126)

Tuscany. (Chateauvieux.)

Netherlands. Abbé Mann, On the Husbandry of the Netherlands in Communication to the Board of Agriculture; Dr. Harte, Essays on Husbandry. Jacob, Travels in Holland, Radcliff, Report on the Agriculture of FIanders. Baron Poederle, Communications etc.

„The increase of population, says Baron Poederlé, since the peace of 1749, has greatly diminished the size of farms, as well in Hainault as elsewhere.  Hervorhebung in der Quelle.
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The proprietors, in dividing their estates, have almost doubled their value;
and Brabant has no occasion for ordinances to that effect. The states of the province, however, petitioned that the size of farms should be settled.“ [»]The smaller the farm, the higher the rent.« (139) „In Brabant there is hardly any such thing as tenants; each farmer is a proprietor.“ (Abbé Mann) p. 140. [»]Low as the produce is in the Netherlands, and heavy as are the  Sadler: rents and taxes
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rents
, still an agriculturist of the new school (Marshall) confesses that a Dutch boor, with 50 or 60 acres, will manage to live as well or better than an English farmer with 200 acres.« (Marshall, Travels through Holland)

Young. Annals of Agriculture.

Radcliff says, Report etc: Speaking of one of the departments „there are 461,695 souls upon 302,235 hectares, which are equal to 746,521 English acres, being about 5 souls to 8 English acres. But the population is much more dense in other districts; in that of Bruges alone, at the rate of 3 souls to 4 acres; and in that of Courtray, at the rate of 1 to 1 English acre. Notwithstanding this, 1/3 of the produce of the land is annually exported“. (p. 145)

In Great Britain about 40 acres to every 10 souls, or 20 acres probably to every family throughout. (145)

Ireland, probably the richest soil of any country of equal extent in Europe, nearly 30 acres for every 10 persons (women and children included): England and Wales have somewhat above. In a word, Ireland, in reference to its productive power, is the worst peopled of any of the grand divisions of the kingdom. (p. 145) And yet our Emigration Committee publish such a question as this, alluding to the small occupiers: – „Are you aware that the greater proportion consists of possessions not greater than an acre of ground?“ To which Malthus replies affirmatively … This is one of the pretended facts on which the scheme of publicly expatriating a part of the people, and privately clearing them, is founded. (145, 146)

Nach last Irish Census (Abstract of the Population of Ireland), usually calculated 5 or 6 persons to a family; and … that much the greater number of the entire population are not employed as agriculturists, meaning by such, I presume, occupiers of land. (146) In the summary of Ireland, placed at the conclusion of the population Returns, the total number of persons employed, exclusive of young children etc 2,836,815; whereof 1,138,069 engaged in agriculture; 1,170,044 in trades, manufactures, and handicrafts; 528,702 in occupations different from the 2 former classes. (146)

In Statistical Returns, Barony of Rathvilly, the only part of Ireland, where survey completed, or at least published, by order of H.o.C. in 1825, details more minute than in general census. Danach families average nearly 51/2 persons; number of souls 17,395 17,359; 48% agriculturists, 52% in other pursuits. Area of barony, in statute acres: 49,745; more than average density of population throughout the island, though there is not what can be called a town in the whole district. Number of farms: 1568, averaging, consequently, above 31 acres each. But their size varies as follows: 573 under 5 acres, 288 between 5 and 10, (or nach English measure between 8 and 16); 341 between 16 and 32; 288 between 32 and 81; 49 between 81 and 162; and 29 upwards of 162 acres each. Also the greater proportion of cultivators not in possession of more than one acre in the first class. Nach dem same document 516 freeholders of 40sh. each, that number also principally composed of those whom the question of the committee points at. Suppose we deduct, for the first 573, 21/2 acres of land each, there remains of land in the barony 48,313, to be divided amongst the remaining 995 farmers, leaving nearly 50 acres for each farm; deducting, however, about 8%, which, it appears, is the proportion not at present cultivated. (146–148) That size far larger than that in the better parts of the Netherlands. (148)

Diese Calculations für barony of Rathvilly may be extended to all Ireland. Taking the rural population at 5 millions (too high a proportion), about 455,000 farmers; davon perhaps 166,000 little cultivators (21/2 acres); the remainder would have upwards of 40 acres of cultivated land each, independently of a share in the 4,900,000 acres in occupation (though not in a productive state). This would average the farms at nearly 60 acres each. Aber 1) the number of agriculturists exaggerated; und 2) as they have not generally speaking capital enough to cultivate farms of the average extent mentioned, … there must be many farms of a very great size in Ireland; – fact kept out of sight – such the case to a lamentable extent. (149)

There are in Ireland 6,801,821 persons; calculating 5 and 6 persons to every family; and supposing that there were neither town nor city in the whole island – and only agricultural employmentstill 10 acres of the most fertile land in the world to each family, one acre of of which, we are assured on all hands, would far more than suffice for the sustenance of each, as they are content to live, and after all only 2/3 of the island is as yet under culture. (150)|

[127]

In dem Report on the State of Ireland, 1825, First Part, Mr. Hugh Wallace’s (banker and solicitor) Evidence, the farmers, not being manufacturers, of Downshire, (one of the most thickly peopled counties in the country) have 10 acres on the average. Fairly treated by their landlords; eat animal food, build slate slated houses, many of them save money; labourers regularly employed and paid in money. In the county of Down 367 souls on □ mile (English); in Galway, the most wretched and least populated part of Ireland, just 1/3 of that number. (150)

In several counties „the grazing farms are of extraordinary extent, one occupier frequently holding more than a 1000 acres“. (Brewer, Beauties of Ireland, vol. I, p. CXXXVII. … To ascribe its evils to a redundant population, is as plain an insult upon truth, as it would be to attribute those felt generations ago, when there were 60 acres to each family. (151)

One of the milder methods to get rid of the superfluous population of Ireland is to impose a tax upon cottages: Malthus is asked whether the legislature would be justified in some distinct measure of that kind; to which he answers in the affirmative. (Emigration Committee, Third Report, p. 321) the loss of a 1000 labourers nach Malthus vor derselben Committee „a gain certainly“. (p. 153)

What is the condition of the ejected Irish tenant? There is no employment for him to resort to, as is happily often the case here; that the absentee proprietors effectually prevent. There are no poorlaws, obliging the man who creates the misery to assist in mitigating it. (158)

One such act suffices to make, a human monster – a multitude of them, a political economist. (159)

Is a system, which can only be supported by brute force, and is kept up by constant blood-shedding, to be perpetuated for ever? Are we still to garrison a defenceless country in behalf of those whose property was, generally speaking, conferred upon the special condition of residence; but whose desertion occasions all the evils, under which she has groaned for centuries? property so treated, that it would not be worth a day’s purchase were the proprietors its sole protectors. But they are aware that their absence is balanced by the presence of a body of military and police, which enables them to conduct themselves with as little apprehension as remorse. (161) Let them urge their own claims and defend their own outrages. (162) [»]The British soldier … degraded virtually into the exactor of the enormous rents of the absentee … or to „clear“ his estates of human beings, when it may please him to utter the fiat from afar.« (l.c.) (This „has lead to a great deal of misery; lately to murder, burning of houses, and several other outrages; and at Croom there was some difficulty in getting the tenants out, and the military were obliged to be called in“. (Major General R. Bourk, Third Report, pp. 313, 314). (p. 162 Note)

The circumstances of the country in regard to its exports, both at that period  Zusatz von Marx.
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(vor der potatoe)
and the present show to what the spare diet of Ireland is owing … the means of comfortable subsistence are withdrawn. (165) »their flour and wheat, their butter, and beef and pork, are demanded by these absentees, to distribute in foreign nations.« ([165,] 166)

Inhalt:

  • Inhaltsverzeichnis von Friedrich Engels
  • Heft II. 1869
  • The Daily News, 20. Mai 1869
    • Notiz
      • Kaufmannsrechnung. (Continuatio)
      • John Leslie Foster, (of Lincoln’s Inn): An Essay on the Principle of Commercial Exchanges. London. 1804.
      • Ch. Lyell. Principles of Geology. 7th ed. London 1847.
      • Otto Hausner: Vergleichende Statistik von Europa (Lemberg. 1865) II. Band.
      • Michael Thomas Sadler. M.P.: Ireland; its Evils and their Remedies. 2nd ed. London. 1829