4) Agricole Bevölkerung.

(1857–1862) in Europa auf 165,320,000 Personen.

Davon:

1) (Rußland): 50,800,000 … Rußland (Polen: 3,700,000.)
2) Oestreich: 24,800,000
3) Frankreich: 19,560,000
4) Italien: 14,100,000
5) Türkei (m. Nebenländern) 11,400,000
6) Spanien 10,700,000
7) Großbritannien 9,700,000
8) Preussen 8,890,000
9) Schweden u. Norwegen 4,080,000 (Schweden: 2,970,000, Norwegen 1,110,000)
10) Baiern 3,080,000
11) Portugal 2,840,000
12) Dänemark 2,080,000 (Schleswig-Holstein: 680,000)
13) Belgien 2,070,000
14) Niederlande 1,820,000
15) Schweiz 1,450,000
16) Hannover 1,220,000
17) Würtemberg 1,030,000
18) Baden 876,000
19) Kgr. Sachsen 716,000
20) Griechenland 700,000 (Ionische Inseln: 140,000)
21) Mecklenburg 493,000
22) Hessen-Darmstadt 475,000
23) Hessen-Kassel 430,000
24) Kirchenstaat 330,000
25) Nassau 281,000
26) Rest von Deutschland 1,350,000 (Kleindeutschland: 9,951,000)

Verhältniß der Agrikolen zur Totalbevölkerung.
I Kategorie. Rein agrikole Länder.
1) Dänemark: 78% der Bevölkerung.
2) Rußland (Polen) 77%
3) Schweden
4) Mecklenburg 76%.
II Kategorie Ueberwiegend Agrikol:
1) Türkei: 72,5% der Bevölkerung.
2) Portugal: 71%.
3) Oestreich: 70.8%.
4) Norwegen 70%.
5) Spanien 68%.
6) Hanover u. 66%.
7) Italien:
8) Baiern 65,8%
9) Baden 64%.
10) Nassau 61.5%.
11) Würtemberg 60%
12) Hessenkassel 59%
13) Schweiz: 58%
14) Hess. Darmstadt 55,5%
15) Griechenland 52,5%.
16) Frankreich 52%.
17) Niederlande 51,2%.
III Kategorie: Untergeordnet Agrikol.
1) Preussen. 48% der Bevölkerung.
2) Kirchenstaat 47,5%
3) Belgien 43%
4) Great Britain 33%.
5) Kgch. Sachsen 33%.

Die Bevölkerung von Rußland, Schweden u. Dänemark hat ein 21/3 × stärker agricoles Element als die von Great Brit. u. Sachsen.|

[64]
Durchschnittlicher Taglohn bei Feldarbeiten.
I. Kategorie: Länder mit hohem Taglohn.
1) Großbritannien. 2 frcs. 18 Ct.
2) Niederlande. 2
3) Belgien. 1 76
4) Frankreich 1 74
5) Schweiz. 1 72
6) Frankfurt. 1 60
7) Portugal 1 50
8) Bremen 1 50

⦗Von Provinzen gehören hierher:

  • Cumberland 3fc. 12ct., Middlesex u. Surrey 2f. 65ct.
  • Department Bouches du Rhône, 2f. 60c.
  • Yorkshire 2f. 55, England 2f. 40,
  • Dpt. Seine et Oise 2f. 30,
  • Schottland 2f. 25c.
  • Dep. du Nord 2f. 15c.,
  • Provinz Santander u. Lerida 2f., Pz. Cadiz 1f. 88ct.
  • Herefordshire 1f. 87ct.
  • Provinz Alicante u. Gerona 1f. 85ct.
  • Dep. Bas Rhin 1f. 80ct.
  • Prov. Albacete, Murcia, Segovia, Biscaya 1f. 75ct.
  • Dpt. Isère 1fc. 70.
  • Lombardie 1f. 67ct.
  • Tirol 1f. 65ct.
  • Prz. Guadalaraja Guadalajara u. Badajoz 1f. 62c.
  • Dep. Landes u. Côte d’Or 1f. 60,
  • Venezien u. Valencia 1f. 55c.
  • Irland, Piemont, Dep. Ain, Allier, Doubs, Provinz Asturien, Pv. Navarra, Saragossa, Huessa, Toledo, Salamanca, Madrid, Malaga, Huelva u. Sevilla: 1f. 50c.⦘

II Kategorie. Länder m. mittlerem Taglohn.
1) Spanien 1f. 47
2) Baden 1. 45
3) Hess. Darmstadt 1. 37
4) Nassau 1. 35
5) Sachsen-Altenburg 1. 34
6) Würtemberg 1. 30
7) Italien 1. 30
8) Kgch Sachsen 1. 24
9) Hessen-Cassel 1. 20
10) Lübeck 1. 15
11) Baiern 1. 10
12) Braunschweig
13) Sachsen-Meiningen
14) Sachsen-Weimar 1. 8
15) Anhalt 1. 5
16) Dänemark 1. 5.

⦗Von Provinzen gehören hierher:

Provz. Valladolid, Burgos, Palencia, Cordova u. Caceres 1f. 47ct.
Dep. Vosges 1. 45
Salzburg 1. 42
Romagna, Dep. Cher, Indre, Vienne u. Regbzk. Düsseldorf 1. 40
Provinz Logroño 1. 37
Rheinpfalz, Prov. Castellon, Dep. Ardèche, Cantal,
Haute-Loire u. Puy de Dôme
1. 35.
Toscana u. Prov. Avila 1. 34
Rheinpreussen, Oberöstreich, Dept. Vendée u. Ariège 1. 30
Niederöstreich, Marken, Umbrien, Dep. Creuse, Corréze
Haute-Vienne, Prov. Almeria, Ciudad Real, Cuença,
Teruel, Jaen, Leon u. Soria
1. 25,
Pr. Sachsen, Gvt. St. Petersburg, Dep. Haute Saone 1. 20
Dep. Côtes du Nord 1. 18
Dep. Morbihan 1. 17
Kärnthen, Dep. Finistère 1. 15
Pvz. Coruña u. Pontevedra 1. 12
Westphalen, Neapel, Pz. Granada 1. 10
Steiermark u. Brandenburg 1. 5
Holstein, Pvz. Lugo, Orense, Zamora 1f. [⦘]|
[65]
III Kategorie. Länder mit niedrigem Taglohn.
1) Preussen. 98ct.
2) Norwegen. 95
3) Hannover. 92
4) Oestreich. 90
5) Griechenland.
6) Schweden. 88
7) Oldenburg. 85
8) Mecklenburg. 75
9) Russisches Reich. 46.
10) Romanien. 45.

⦗Von Provinzen gehören hierher:

Waterford County 94 Ct.
Sicilien u. Liefland 90 C.
Pr. Schlesien u. Dalmatien 85 Ct.
Westpreussen. 80 Ct.
Oest. Schlesien 78 Ct.
Böhmen u. Kurland 75 Ct.
Mähren 72
Posen u. Finnland 70
Ungarn 66
Galizien, Kroatien, Esthland 63
Ostpreussen, Siebenbürgen 60
Polen 54,
Süd-Rußland 52
Banat u. Bukowina 50
Groß Rußland 48
Weiß Rußland 42
Klein Rußland 41
Ost-Rußland 37
Gouv. Wjaetka 33.[⦘]

Also Taglohn in Cumberlandshire 91/2 × grösser als im Gouv. Wjaetka, in Gt. Britain 43/4 × als im Russ. Reich u. den Donaufürstenthümern.

 Doppelt unterstrichen mit Rot- und Blaustift. Die Überschrift befindet sich nicht in der Quelle.
Schließen
Agrarian and Public Outrages in Ireland.

Irish Landlords and their apologists, have very dexterously attributed these outrages to the tithing system, as if any body upon earth could believe that such landlords as the generally are, in respect of 9/10 of the produce, would be kinder than ecclesiastical ones, were the they put into possession of the remaining 1/10 . Disturbance in Munster, in 1760, originated in the oppressive treatment of many landed proprietors, especially in their turning adrift vast numbers of the old tenantry of the province, „in order to throw many farms into one“, to obtain, if possible, a greater „surplus produce“. Numbers were thus at once deprived of their ancient holdings, probably the possessions of their forefathers; they were called  Hervorhebung in der Quelle.
Schließen
levellers;
and several years elapsed before they were put down. Gordon (History of Ireland, vol. II, p. 240, 241) thus describes this insurrection:

„It was occasioned by the expulsion of great numbers of labouring peasants, destitute of any regular means of subsistence by any other species of industry; while those who remained unexpelled, or procured small plots of ground, had no means of paying the exorbitant rents, even by labour, the pay of which was, by the smallness of the demand, beyond all due proportion low. The misery of these cottagers was completed when they were, by inclosures, deprived of commonage, which to many had been at first allowed. Numbers of them secretely assembled in the night, and vented their fury on objects ignorantly conceived to be the causes of their misery.“ (p. 113)

Insurrection of White Boys; its cause the intolerable oppression of the landed proprietors. (Campbell, Philosophical Survey of Ireland, p. 304, Wakefield vol. II, p. 9)

Hearts of Steel, in 1763 and 1764: likewise excited by the cruelty of the same class, through the medium of their subordinate agents, who demanded excessive fines, and racked the old tenants to an extent utterly beyond their power to pay. They were  Hervorhebung in der Quelle.
Schließen
cleared
. „The hapless peasants being thus abandoned, gave way to the impulse of their ungovernable passions, and vented their fury on those whom they considered as their oppressors. These commotions … arose from causes unconnected with public measures.“ (Wakefield, vol. II, 9, 10)

 Hervorhebung in der Quelle.
Schließen
Right Boys
appeared in about 1786, and marched in hostile bodies of hundreds and sometimes thousands … The Attorney General Fitz-Gibbon declared in his place in the Irish Commons on that accasion, that though tithes had been mentioned as the cause of it … it arose from „the peasants being ground down to powder by exorbitant rents, who were so far from being able to pay their dues to the clergy, that they possessed not food or raiment for themselves“. (p. 114, 115) These were again cleared and put down. (115)

 Zusatz von Marx.
Schließen
1821–22 (oder 1822)
… the tenantry on the estates of a great Irish absentee in the county of Limerick … Disturbances which have but lately terminated. 20,000 tenantry were thrown in a state of furious agitation. (Speech of R. Hon. Charles Grant, H.o.C., April 22, 1822) (p. 116 115)

 Doppelt unterstrichen mit Rot- und Blaustift.
Schließen
Der Hass gegen den Protestantismus und Gvt.
sehr einfach zu explain: they „are the religion and government, supported by 9/10, perhaps, of the great proprietors of Ireland. Not another word is necessary.“ (116)|

Inhalt:

  • Inhaltsverzeichnis von Friedrich Engels
  • Heft II. 1869
  • The Daily News, 20. Mai 1869
    • Notiz
      • Kaufmannsrechnung. (Continuatio)
      • John Leslie Foster, (of Lincoln’s Inn): An Essay on the Principle of Commercial Exchanges. London. 1804.
      • Ch. Lyell. Principles of Geology. 7th ed. London 1847.
      • Otto Hausner: Vergleichende Statistik von Europa (Lemberg. 1865) II. Band.
      • Michael Thomas Sadler. M.P.: Ireland; its Evils and their Remedies. 2nd ed. London. 1829