2) Verhältniß der Zahl der Grundbesitzer zum Flächenraum.

 Bemerkung von Marx.
Schließen
(Dieß ⦗Dieß beruht auf 1), Vertheilung, also essentiellement falsch.⦘

In ganz Europa 21.7 Hectaren Culturboden auf 1 Grundbesitzer.

⦗1 englischer Acre = 0,405 Hectare
1 fzs. Are = 0,01 Hectare.
1 pr. Morgen = 0,255 Hect.⦘

I. Kategorie: Länder des kleinen (zerstückelten) Grundbesitzes.
1) Belgien: 2,8 Hectaren Culturboden auf 1 Grundbesitzer
2) Würtemberg 3,9
3) Baden 4,6.
4) Nassau 4,7
5) Hess. Darmstadt 5.3
6) Italien 5,7.
7) Frankreich. 6.
8) Schweiz
9) Kgch Sachsen 6.3
10) Hessen Kassel 6.5
11) Niederlande 6.6
12) Baiern 7.4.
⦗Von Provinzen gehören hierher: Rheinpfalz, 2.5 Hect. auf 1 Grundbesitzer.
Rheinpreussen 3 auf 1
Lombardie 3.2 1
Sicilien 4 1
Neapel 4.5 1
Piemont 5,3 1
Prov. Alicante 6 1
          Coruña 6,2 1
Westphalen 6,9 1
Pr. Sachsen 9,8 1.⦘
II Kategorie: Länder des mittleren Grundbesitzes.
1) Preussen: 10,9 Hect. Culturboden auf 1 Grundbesitzer.
2) Hannover 11,1
3) Spanien 15,4
4) Oestreich 18,6
5) Dänemark 19
6) Portugal 29.8.
⦗Von Provinzen hierher: Venezien, 10.3 Hectare auf 1 Grundbesitzer.
Romagna: 10.5 1
Pr. Schlesien 11.1 1
Galizien 14.5 1
Toskana 15.3 1
Ungarn 18.2 1
Niederöstreich. 18.7. 1
Brandenburg 21. 1
Posen u. Provinz Murcia: 24 1
Böhmen 25,8 1
Siebenbürgen u. Provinz Cuença 26 1
Ost u. Westpreussen 28 1
Pommern 28,5 1
Prov. Caceres (Post.(?)) 29 Hect. auf 1.⦘
III Kategorie: Länder des grossen (gebundenen Grundbesitzes:)
1) Kirchenstaat. 50.1 Hectaren auf 1 Grundbesitzer.
2) Griechenland 55
3) Romanien 56
4) Schweden 59
5) Rußland 61 Hect. auf 1
6) Mecklenburg 63 Hect. auf 1.
7) Great Britain 112
8) Norwegen 120.|
[62]
⦗Von Provinzen gehören zur Kategorie III: Polen 30 Hect. auf 1 Grundbesitzer.
Provinz Albacete 31 1
Ciudad Real 51 1
England 72 1
Schottland 226 1
Irland 363 1.⦘
Angaben über grosse Güter in 10 Staaten vorhanden.
1) Rußland 62,500 grosse Güter. (Polen: 3,600)
2) Oestreich: 34,500 (Galizien: 2,900)
3) Great Britain 33,000. ⦗England: 22,000. Schottland: 3000. Irland: 8000.⦘
4) Frankreich: 25,000.
5) Spanien: 22,300
6) Preussen 18,300.
⦗Provinz Preussen: 4120
Schlesien 3000
Posen 2650
Pommern 2600
Brandenburg 2360
Rheinprovinz 1510
Sachsen 1240
Westphalen 700
Hohenzollern 90.⦘
7) Hannover 2600
8) Kg. Sachsen 940
9) Würtemberg 718
10) Mecklenburg 690.
Ein Grundbesitzer Irlands on the average 130 × mehr Grundbesitz als ein Grundbesitzer Belgiens,
Großbritanniens   20 × mehr als Italiens.
Verhältniß der Großgrundbesitzer zu den Kleingrundbesitzern.
1 Großgrundbesitzer in Großbritannien  Kommentar von Marx.
Schließen
(ganz falsch!)
auf
7 Kleingrundbesitzer
1 Mecklenburg 23
1 Rußland 78
1 Oestreich 82
1 Hannover 108
1 Spanien 109
1 Preussen 116
1 Sachsen 230
1 Frankreich 313
1 Würtemberg 690 630.
Verhältniß der Großgrundbesitzer zur Einwohnerzahl.
1 Großgrundbesitzer in Spanien auf 710 Einwohner.
Hannover 720.
Great Britain 880.
Mecklenburg 940
Preussen 1070 (Maximum: Pommern auf 530, Minimum: Westphalen auf 2285 Einwohner)
Oestreich 1020
Rußland 1060.
Polen 1330
Frankreich 1500
Sachsen 2350
Würtemberg 2390.

Also in Pommern 41/2 × mehr Großgrundbesitzer als in Würtemberg.|

Emigration.

If it (Ireland’s evil) had to be cured by such a remedy as this, it would have been removed long since. See Archbishop Boulter’s letters, written a century ago, Dobbs, Essay on the Trade and Improvement of Ireland, part II, Newenham’s Inquiry concerning the Population of Ireland, for evidence of the extensive emigrations that formerly took place. (p. 79) It will be fully seen that, were the remedy desirable, we have no chance whatever of applying it, in reference to the relative numbers, in a degree equal to that in which it was tried above a 100 years ago, and thenceforward for at least half a century. (l.c.)

[»]The „scattering of mankind over the face of the earth“ may be distinctly traced to their animal propensities, to their sloth and ignorance, operated upon by necessity; their numbers having increased … that necessity called forth their intellectual faculties, rendered them stationary, introduced the institutions and arts of social existence; and in a word, created the immeasurable distance between savage and civilized man.« (82)|

[124]

[»]Nothing can be more clear than that the great work of planting the nations was performed, not when the earth was full of inhabitants, but, on the contrary, when it was comparatively void: not by nations whose numbers were the greatest, but the fewest and most scattered; in a word, not by those who had a real necessity to migrate, but by those whose ignorance taught them so to suppose, and whose barbarism made them fit instruments for the purpose.« (83)

Malthus boldly assures the honourable committee, that putting out of existence a thousand labourers here and there would, nationally speaking, be an advantage. (Third Emigration report p. 324, § 3246)

This is the case even in Ireland; where the population is the thinnest, the demand for labour is the least, and is, of course, the worst remunerated. (See Report on the State of Ireland, Part IV, p. 445 sqq.) p. 90. Our old fashioned national economists calculated the wealth of the country as principally consisting of the numbers of its inhabitants. (Petty. Political Arithmetic) (l.c.)

In every stage of civilization, from the first rudiments of society to its most perfect state, mankind have been ever found necessary to each other, and, consequently not personally only, but relatively valuable. (90, 91)

Mr. Malthus has told … that Greece was surcharged with inhabitants. Never, however, did its citizens regard the lowest, and infinitely the most numerous class among them, „redundant“, excepting when they conceived them to be, on particular emergencies, too formidable for their safety. On the contrary, they were constantly making predatory expeditions, one principal objects object of which was the seizure of men, who were a profitable article of sale amongst them. Xenophon, in his Economics, recommends an addition of 20,000 slaves at once to those already in the state of Athens (See Boeckh), who, it is calculated by some, outnumbered the freemen about 20 : 1. (See Hume: Essay on the populousness of Ancient nations, and Boeckh estimates the number of the slaves, compared with that of the citizens, including the whole free population, as 100 : 27. (vol. I, p. 52) (91)

 Kommentar von Marx.
Schließen
Der bloss historische Charakter des s.g. Populationsgesetzes zeigt sich am besten wenn man die moderne kapitalistische Gesellschaft vergleicht, sei es mit der antiken Welt, sei es mit modernen Sklavenstaaten. Was hier „redundant“ ist, ist die freie Bevölkerung, während die arbeitende Sklavenbevölkerung nie genügt. Bei uns umgekehrt. Die Lohnarbeiter werden „redundant“ erklärt (die Arbeitsbienen), niemals die Drohnen.

Rome, in like manner, imported men from different part parts of the world in vast numbers, at the very time when, where were we to believe the theory  Zusatz von Marx.
Schließen
(des Pfaffen Malthus)
, she was already overwhelmed with people. (See Montesquieu, Causes of the Rise and Fall etc ch. VIII (p. 91)[)] [»]In England likewise, during the feudal system, when men were personal property, vastum hominum et rerum on an estate, was, in the celebrated instrument Magna Charta, regarded as an equal injury to its owner … As to the negroes in our sugar islands … they are regarded … as valuable property. In Barbadoes there were, in 1820, 78,345 slaves, the island containing, it is said, 106,470 acres of land, giving a population, exclusively of the whites, far more twice as dense as that of Ireland.« (92) In no age or country of the world in which mankind has been held in bondage, and been the property of others, have they ever been deemed valueless … does the condition of the labouring classes deteriorate as society advances in improvement? Do they sink in actual and individual value as they rise in the social scale? (94) Our moderns … would have to believe … that day which makes a man a freeman takes all his worth away, nay, actually reduces him  Sadler: in value to less than nothing
Schließen
in his value to make him less than nothing
, and makes it a national object to get rid of him. (94)

M. Malthus , indeed, talks that the prudential restraint, if generally adopted, „by narrowing the supply of human labour in the market, would, in the natural course of things, soon raise its price[“] … self-contradiction … would not the market of demand be narrowed in precisely the same ratio as the market of labour? (97, Note)

The experiment of transporting  Zusatz von Marx.
Schließen
(the poor)
them … long since recommended by a class of writers, the political economists of their day, and deemed, like ours, wise in their generation. Gee, upwards of a century ago, calculating the unemployed British poor at more than a million, forestalled the wisdom of our present projectors, by strenuously recommending them to be sent to the colonies; on  Sadler: whom
Schließen
which
the benevolent Hanway observes, „whether his bad policy or his inhumanity is most to be execrated, must be a question[“]. (98, 99) (See on the one side: Gee’s Trade and Navigation, ch.  Sadler: XXVII
Schließen
XVII
, and XVIII Sadler: XXVIII , and Carey: Discourse on Trade; on the other Hanway: Defects of Police etc and Gents. Mag. 1734, p. 198 „Send a cargo or two off to Nova Scotia.“ (99, Note a und b.)

Let the 30 millions of uncultivated acres, out of the 77 which these islands comprise, as well as those boundless unimproved „wastes of the ocean“ by which they are surrounded to use Lord Bacon’s expression, finally answer this question. If you want food, therefore, here it is to be obtained in supplies that defy calculation; if you want labour, her here it presents itself to an unlimited extent, and of the most practical as well as beneficial kind. But our political economists, disgusted with proposals so obvious and natural, turn from them, as Naaman did from the prophet, in contempt; and require some great and imposing remedies to be applied, some mysterious incantations to be pronounced, and cruel rites to be performed, in order to the relief of our country. (100, 101)

the capitalists are they who ought to emigrate, if they are so disposed, and not the industrious labourers, who, under proper encouragement, may subsist anywhere. (102) the ablebodied, the young, and the healthful … are to be starved, bribed, and conveyed out of the Country. (101)

Inhalt:

  • Inhaltsverzeichnis von Friedrich Engels
  • Heft II. 1869
  • The Daily News, 20. Mai 1869
    • Notiz
      • Kaufmannsrechnung. (Continuatio)
      • John Leslie Foster, (of Lincoln’s Inn): An Essay on the Principle of Commercial Exchanges. London. 1804.
      • Ch. Lyell. Principles of Geology. 7th ed. London 1847.
      • Otto Hausner: Vergleichende Statistik von Europa (Lemberg. 1865) II. Band.
      • Michael Thomas Sadler. M.P.: Ireland; its Evils and their Remedies. 2nd ed. London. 1829