Feller/Odermann, S. 402.
Schließen
Merkantilische Berechnung der Maaße und Gewichte
.

Waaren werden gemessen, gewogen oder gezählt.
Messen durch Längen- Flächen- oder Körpermaasse.
Wiegen durch Gewichte.
Zählen durch Zählmaasse.

I) Maasse.

1) Längenmaasse.

In Frankreich der 10 Millionste Theil des Quadranten des Erdmeridians = 1 Mètre = Einheit des Längenmaasses.
Ditto Holland
Belgien
(1 Mètre = 1 Elle.)
= 1 Aune métrique)
In Baden, Hessendarmstadt, Nassau, Theil der Schweiz = 1 Elle = 3/5 mètre.
In England: Yard (von Henry I herrührend, der seinen Arm als Maßstab nahm) ist 1825 1 Yard = 0,9143835 Meter bestimmt worden.
Rußland: 1 Arschin = 0,711119 0,711190 Mètres.
Preussen: 1 Elle = 0,66694 Mètres
Sachsen: (Gesetz vom 12 März 1858) 1 Elle = 0,56638 Mètres.

 Die Übersicht teils aus tabellarischer Aufstellung, teils aus Fließtext.
Schließen
Zusammenstellung der hauptsächlichsten im Handel vorkommenden Maßeinheiten
.

Frankreich. = 10 1,000,000 Quadrant des Erdmeridians = 1 Mètre.
England. 1 Yard = 0,9143835 Mètres
Rußland. 1 Arschin = 0,711119 0,71119 Mètres.
Spanien. 1 Vara = 0,8350 do.
Wien. 1 Elle = 0,77919 do.
Schweden. 1 Aln = 0,59538 do.
Hamburg. 1 Elle = 0,57284 do.
Frankfurt am Main: 1 Elle = 0,57430 M.
Preussen. 1 Elle = 0,66694 Mètres
Sachsen. 1 Elle = 0,56638 do.
Portugal. 1 Vara = 1,0960 do.
Bayern. 1 Elle = 0,83301 do.
Dänemark. 1 Alen = 0,62771
Hannover. 1 Elle = 0.58419
Braunschweig. 1 Elle = 0,57072
Baden. Darmstadt
1 Elle

= 3/5 mètre.
Nassau. Theil der Schweiz

Ausserdem wird noch die alte Brabanter Elle in Deutschland vielfach benutzt, ist aber nicht überall von gleicher Grösse:

z.B. in Hamburg = 0,6874,
Frankfurt = 0,6992
Leipzig = 0,6856,
Kassel = 0,6943 Meter.
Elle: Gewöhnlich 1 Elle = 2 Fuß, à 12 Zoll, à 12 Linien (duodecimale Eintheilung)
Preussische Elle = 251/2 Zoll,
Wiener Elle = 2,465 Wiener Fuß,
Bayrische Elle = 2 Fuß 10¼ Zoll u.s.w.
Fuß: Der pr. Fuß ist der ehemalige s.g. rheinländische = 0,313853 Metres. (Für wissenschaftliche Zwecke 1 Fuß = 10 Zoll, 1 Zoll = 10 Linien)
Yard (Engl.) = 3 (engl.) Fuß à 12 Zoll.
Bezeichnung größrer Längen:
Deutschland: Klafter (beim Bergwesen Lachter genannt, bei Schiffahrt Faden) u. Ruthe (in verschiednen deutschen Ländern verschieden groß.[)]
England: Pole or Perch = 51/2 Yds.
Rußland: Saschen = 3 Arschin od. 7 Englische Fuß.
Größte Längeneinheit: Meile.
Die neue fzs Lieue = 10,000 Metres = 1 Myriametre. Kleinre Seemeile = 9 : 5 zur lieue u. Postmeile = 13 : 9 (zur Seemeile) ca.
England: 1760 Yards = 1 Statute Mile. 3 Statute Miles = 1 League od. Seemeile.
Rußland: 1 Werst = 500 Saschen. (Oestr. Postmeile = 24 000 Wiener Fuß, Preuss. Postmeile = 2000 Ruthen od. 24 000 Pr. Fuß.|

19

 Feller/Odermann, S. 484.
Schließen
Aufzählung verschiedner Maße
.

1) Frankreich
Längen M Einheit Mètre.
1 Myriametre = 10 Kilometre.
1 Kilometre = 10  Feller/Odermann: Hektometer
Schließen
Dekameter
1 Dekametre = 10 Metres.
1 Metres Metre = 10 Decimetres.
1 Decimeter = 10 Centimetres.
1 Centimetre = 10 Millimeter.
Flächenmaß: Einheit Are = 100 □ Metre.
1 Hectare = 100 Ares.
1 Ares. = 100 Centiares.
Körpermaß Einheit: Der Stère = 1 Kubikmetre.
1 Décastère = 10 Stères
1 Stère = 10 Décistères.
Hohlmaß: Einheit Litre = 1 Kubikdecimetre
1 Hectolitre = 10 Décalitres
1 Décalitre = 10 Litres
1 Litre = 10 Décilitres
1 Décil. = 10 Centilitres.
Handelsgewicht: Einheit das Gramme = das in 1 Kubikcentimetre enthaltne reine Wasser.
1 Kilogramme = 10 Hectogr.
1 Hectogr. = 10 Décagr.
1 Décagr. = 10 Grammes.
1 Gramme = 10 Décigr.
1 Décigr. = 10 Centigr.
1 Centigr. = 10 Milligrammes.
1 Kilogr. (Ko) = 1000 Grammes.
2) London.
L. M. 1 Yard = 3 feet.
1 foot = 12 inches.
Fl. M. 1 □ Yard = 9 □ feet.
1 □ foot. = 144 □ inches
H. Maß 1 Qr = 8 Bushels
1 b = 8 Gallons
1 Gallon = 8 Pints.
Handelsgewicht: 1 Cwt. (Hundredweight)
1 Cwt = 4 Quarters.
1 Qr. = 28lbs.
1lb = 16 Ounces.
1 oz = 16 Drams.
1 Ton = 20 cwts.

3) Berlin.
L. M. 1 Fuß = 12 Zoll à 12 Linien.
1 Elle = 251/2 Zoll. (11 Ellen = 8 Yards)
12 Fuß = 1 Ruthe.
FlächenM 1 Morgen = 180 □ Ruthen
G. M. 1 Scheffel = 16 Metzen
24 Scheffel = 2 Malter = 1 Wispel.
Für Getreidepreise 1 Wispel = 25 Scheffel.
Flüssigkeitsmaß: 1 Fuder = 4 Oxthoft Oxhoft à 11/2 Ohm à 2 Eimer à 2 Anker à 30 Quart.
H. G. (seit 1 Juli 1858) 1 Centner = 100lb
1lb = 30 Loth à 10 Quentchen à 10 Zent à 10 Korn.
4000 lbs = 1 Schiffslast.
Altes Handelsgewicht: 1 Ctr. à 110 lbs à 32 Loth à 4 Quentchen.
3 Ctr = 1 Schiffspfund.

4) Petersburg.
L. M: 1 Werst = 500 Saschen à 3 Arschin od. à 7 Fuß à 12 Zoll à 10 Linien.
1 Arschin = 28 Zoll.
Fl. M 1 Dessätine = 2400 □ Saschèn = 109,32 fzs. Ares.
H. G.: 1 Berkowetz = 10 Pud.
1 Pud = 40 lbs
1lb = 96 Solotnik
1 Solotnik = 96 Doli.

2)  Feller/Odermann, S. 404.
Schließen
Flächenmaasse od. Quadratmaasse
.

Flächenmaß dadurch gebildet, daß man die in gleicher Weise ausgedrückte Länge u. Breite mit sich selbst multiplicirt. Z.B. Fläche von 1 Zoll Länge u. Breite = 1 × 1 = 1 □ Zoll.

Flächenmaße behalten Namen der Längenmaasse, woraus sie gebildet sind, wie Quadrat-fuß -ruthe -meile u.s.w., oder haben besondre Namen, wie Acker, Morgen, Joch, Juchart, Tagewerk.

Mit diesen Quadratmaassen mißt man aber nicht. Man ermittelt vielmehr den Inhalt der Flächen unter Anwendung von Längenmaassen u. durch Rechnung.

Wenn z.B. eine Fläche 8 Fuß lang u. 3 Fuß breit, so = 8 × 3 = 24 □ fuß (□').

Je nachdem die Eintheilung der Längenmaasse duodecimal od. decimal, resp. auch die Eintheilung der Flächenmaasse.

1 □' demnach kann sein = 12 × 12 = 144 □' od. = 10 × 10 = 100 □'.

3) Körpermaasse od. Kubikmaasse.

Körpermaß aus Längenmaß dadurch gebildet, daß man die durch das gleiche Längenmaß ausgedrückte Länge, Breite u. Höhe (Dicke, Tiefe) unter einander multiplicirt.

Körper von 1 Zoll Länge, Breite, Höhe = 1 × 1 × 1 = 1 Kubikzoll. Die Rechnung erfolgt durch Längenmaasse. Z.B. ein Körper 3' lang, 2' breit u. 2' hoch (dick), so sein Inhalt = 3 × 2 × 2 = 12 Kubikfuß. Duodecimal 1 Kubikfuß = 12 × 12 × 12 = 1728 Kubikzoll, Decimal = 103 = 1000 Kubikzoll.

Hohlmaasse: Besondre Form des Körpermaasses zum Messen von trocknen Gegenständen (Getreide etc) u. Flüssigkeiten (Wein etc) Sie haben meist eine abgerundete Form u. ihre Grösse ist in der Regel mittelst eines wirklichen Körpermaasses, z.B. durch Kubikzoll bestimmt, in neurer Zeit besonders durch den französischen Litre.

In Holland heißt der Hectolitre (Litre dient den Franzosen zum Messen trockner wie flüssiger Waaren) Mud.

Wichtigste Getreidemaasse.
Frankreich 1 Litre = 1 Kubikdecimetre.
Preussen 1 Scheffel = 54,96 Litres
Sachsen do = 103,828 do.
England. Imperial Quarter = 290,781 Litres
Rußland. Tschewert Tschetwert = 209,9 do.
Schweden. Getreidetonne = 164,883 do.
Baden. 1 Malter = 150 Litres
Dänemark. Korntonne = 139,12
H.-Darmstadt. Neues Malter = 128
Böhmen. Strich = 93,60
Triest. Stajo = 83,31
Wien. Metzen = 61,5
Bayern. Metzen = 37,06 Litres
Hannover. Himten = 31,152.

England: Tun = 4 Hogsheads = 252 Gallons = 2016 Pints (für Flüssigkeiten)

Manche Flüssigkeiten nach Gewicht gemessen, wie Oel, od. dafür mit der Bestimmung des Maasses die des Gewichts verbunden (Köln.) Letztres auch beim Getreide.



II)  Feller/Odermann, S. 406.
Schließen
Gewichte
.

In England: Handelsgewicht (Avoirdupoids Weight) u. für edle Metalle, Perlen, Juwelen, Apotheker Waare Troygewicht (Troy Weight)

1lb Troy = 12 oz. od. 7560 5760 Grains.
1lb Avoirdupoids = 16 oz. oder 7000 Grs, so daß 192 oz. Avoirdupoids = 175 Troy oz. od. 144 lbs Avoird. = 175 lbs Troy.

In Schweden viererlei Gewicht: a) Victualiengewicht (eigentliches Handelsgewicht) b) das Pfund Berg- od. Bergwerksgewicht. c) Pfund Landstätter Landstädter Gewicht. d) Das Eisen-Stapelstädter = od. Ausschiffungsgewicht. Diese Pfunde verhalten sich = 17 : 15 : 14 : 13, so daß das Victualiengewicht das Größte. Von 1. Jan. 1856 an Victualiengewicht das allein gesetzliche, aber für 7 Jahre kann man sich noch der alten bedienen.

Früher gewöhnliche, jezt noch hier u. da übliche Unterscheidung Gewicht für Großhandel u. für den Kleinhandel, wie z.B. in Würtemberg, Kurhessen, u. mehren Ländern Italiens. (Schwergewicht u. Leichtgewicht, peso grosso, peso sottile.)|

20
Einheiten des Handelsverkehrs.
Frankreich: Kilogramm = 1000 Grammes
Niederlande ditto. 1 pond = 1000
Preussen, Baden
Sachsen, Würtemberg, Hannover, Hessen Darmstadt, Nassau, Braunschweig, Oldenburg, Bremen, Frankfurt etc
1 Pfund = 500 = 1/2 Kilo.
Türkei 1 Okka = 1278,480 Grammes
Neapel Rottolo = 891,997.
Oestreich u. Baiern 1 Pfund = 560,000
Spanien. libra = 460,142 Grammes
Portugal. Arratel = 459,000
Schweden (Victualgewicht) = 425,010
Rußland: 1 Pfund = 409,516
Toscana (libbra) = 339,542
Rom (libbra) = 339,156
Genua (libbra peso sottile) = 316,779.
Centner: England Hundredweight = 112 lbs.
Frankreich Quintal = 100 lbs
Spanien Quintal = 150 lbs (der grössere spanische Centner)
Portugal Quintal = 128 lbs.
Italien Cantaro = 100 lbs.
Türkei
Lübeck Centner = 8 Liespfund à 14 lbs.
Deutscher Stein = 22, neuerdings 20 lbs.
Stone (engl.) = 14 lbs.
Berkowetz (russ.) = 10 Pud à 40 lbs.
Span. Arroba = 25 lbs.
Portugies. Arroba = 32lbs.

In Deutschland häufig Gewicht von 3 Centnern Schiffspfund.

Im Seefrachtwesen:
1 Schiffstonne = 2000 lbs.
Schiffslast = 4000 lbs.
tonneau de mer = 1000 Ko etc.

III)  Feller/Odermann, S. 408.
Schließen
Zählmaasse
.

Großtausend (für Stab- od. Faßholz) = 1200 Stück.
Ordinäres Tausend = 1000
Ring (für Stabholz) = 240
Groß = 144
Großhundert = 120
Kleinhundert = 100
Wall, Wahl (Fische) = 80
Webe = 72 Ellen.
Schock = 60 Stück.
Rolle (Segeltuch) = 50 Arschinen.
Zimmer (für Pelzwerk) = 40 Stück.
Band (für Garben u. Fische) = 30
Stiege (engl. score) = 20
Mandel = 15
Dutzend = 12
Decher = 10
Rolle (Juchten) = 6 Felle.
Papier
Ein Ballen = 10 Riess à 20 Buch.
Man rechnet aber:
1 Riess = 480 Bogen Schreibpapier,
= 500 Bogen Druckpapier.

IV)  Feller/Odermann, S. 408.
Schließen
Vergleichung der Maasse u. Gewichte
.

a) Längenmaasse.

1 Beispiel. Der alte Pariser Fuß (pied de roi) = 0,3248395 Meter, u. der in Preussen gesetzliche rheinländische Fuß = 0,3138535 Meter. Wie vergleichen sich diese Unterschiede mit einander?

1 Rh. Fuß = 3138535 3248395 Pariser Fuß = 627707 649679 Pariser Fuß. 1 Pariser Fuß = 649679 627707 od. 1 21972 627707 Rh. Fuß.

Bequemer mit Procenten berechnet.

Auf 100: 627 707 Par. Fuß : 100 Pariser Fuß = 649 679 rh. Fuß : x
x = 103,50 Rhein. Fuß. : Also 100 Paris. Fuß = 103,50 Rhld. Fuß.
Im 100: 649 679 rh. Fuß : 100 Rh. Fuß = 627 707 Pariser Fuß : x.
x = 96,62. Also 100 Rh. Fuß = 96,62 Pariser Fuß.

2 Beispiel.

Schwedische Meile = 36 000 Fuß à 0,296901 Meter.
Russische Werst = 500 Saschen od. 1500 Arschin à 0,7111872 Meter.

Wie viel Werst gehn auf 1 schwedische Meile?

x Werst = 1 Schw. Meile.
1 = 36 000 Fuß
1 = 0,296901 Metres.
0,7111872 = 1 Arschin
500 = 1 Werst
x = 10,0193 Werst. Da nun 1 Russ. Meile = 10 Werst, kann man die schwedische der russischen gleichsetzen.



b) Flächenmaße.

1 Beispiel.
1 Engl. Acre = 4046,7102 □ Meter. Also: 57 557 45 57 557 450 Acres = 40 467 102 Joch.
1 Oestr. Joch = 5755,745 … Und: 40 467 102 : 100 = 5 755 74557 557 450 : x. Also 100 Joch = 142,23 Acres od. 5 Joch = 7 Acres ca.



2 Beispiel.
1 Are = 100 □ metre.
1 Meter = 3,186 pr. Fuß; 12 Pr. Fuß = 1 Längenruthe. 180 □ Ruthen = 1 Pr. Morgen. Wie vergleicht sich letztrer mit der fzs. Are?
x Ares = 1 Morgen.
1 = 180 □ Ruthen.
1 = 144 □ Fuß (12 × 12)
(3,186 × 3,186) 10,150596 = 1 □ Metre.
(10 × 10 M.) 100 = 1 Are
3,1329 pr. Morgen = 80 Ares od. 31 329 = 800 000 od. 1 Pr. Morgen = 25,5 Ares.


21

c) Körpermaasse.

Bei Vergleichung der Körper- od. Hohlmaasse ist zu unterscheiden,

  • ob für beide ein gemeinschaftlicher Maßstab in einem u. demselben Körpermaß gegeben ist,
  • Oder ob der körperliche Inhalt wechselseitig in verschiednen Körpermaassen ausgedrückt, deren Vergleichung dadurch möglich wird, daß die Grösse des ihnen zu Grunde liegenden Längenmaasses durch einen u. denselben Maßstab bezeichnet wird.

1 Beispiel
Ein grossherzoglicher hessischer Stecken hält 1,5625 fzs. Stères  Zusatz von Marx.
Schließen
(1 Stère = 1 □ Mètre)
eine badische Klafter 3,888 fzs. Stères.

Wie vergleichen sich beide Brennholzmaasse nach Procenten auf 100?

1,5625 : 100 = 3,888 : x
x = 284,83. Also: 100 badische Klafter = 2845/6 hess. Stecken.

2 Beispiel x Liter = 100 pr. Quart à 64 pr. Kubikzoll, wenn 1 pr. Fuß = 139,13 Pariser Linien, 1 Liter = 1 Kubik- Decimeter u. 1 Meter = 443,3 Pariser Linien.

x Litres = 100 pr. Quart.
1 = 64 pr. Kubikzoll.
12 × 12 × 12 = 1 pr. Kubikfuß.
1 = 139,13 × 139,13 × 139,13 Paris. Kubiklinien (Pariser Kub.''')
443,3 × 443,3 × 443,3 = 1 Kubikmeter.
1 = 10 × 10 × 10 Kubikdecimetres.
1 = 1 Liter.
x = 114,5 Liter. Also 114,5 Litres = 100 pr. Quart.


d) Gewichte.

Die Grösse zweier zu vergleichender Gewichte entweder gegeben durch ein drittes Gewicht als gemeinschaftlichem Maßstab.

Oder diese Grösse wird dadurch bezeichnet, daß das Kubikmaaß gegeben ist, welches den zu vergleichenden Gewichten zu Grunde liegt.

Ist die Grösse dieses Kubikmaasses nicht durch einen u. denselben kubischen Maßstab, sondern durch Angabe des Längenmaasses bezeichnet, so muß eine Reduction des letztren auf das Kubikmaaß eintreten.



1 Beispiel. Wiener Pfund wiegt 8642,396 engl. Troygrän.
Ko wiegt 15[,]432,336 engl. Troygrän. Wie vergleichen sich beide Gewichte in den kleinsten Annäherungswerthen?

Jene beiden Zahlen reducirbar auf 8407 u. 15 012. Also 8407 : 100 = 15 012 : x. Danach 100 Kilo. = 178,57 Wiener lb. About wonach 5 Kilo. = 9 Wien. lb.

2 Beispiel. Russische Pfund wiegt 25,019 russische Kubikzoll destillirten Wassers;

1 engl. □ Zoll Kubikzoll destillirten Wassers = 252,458 Troygrän. 1 engl. Zoll = 1 Russ. Zoll, 7000 Troygrän = 1lb Avoirdps. Wie vergleicht sich englisches lb. Avoirdps. u. russisches lb?

x lbs Avdps = 100lb russ.
1 = 25,019 russ. Kb.''
1 = 252,458 Troygrän.
7000 = 1lb Avdps
x = 90,23.  Zusatz von Marx.
Schließen
Also 90,23 lbs Avdps = 100 lbs Russisch.

3) Beispiel. Vergleiche das bisherige pr. u. das russische lb. 1 Kubikfuß destillirten Wassers wiegt 66 pr. lbs
1 russ. Fuß = 12 Zoll = 135,1142 Paris. Linien. 1 pr. Fuß = 139,13 Paris. Linien.

x lb russ. = 100 lbs pr.
66 = 1 pr. Kb'
1 = 139,13 × 139,13 × 139,13 Paris. Kub.'''.
135,1142 × 135,1142 × 135,1142 = 1 russ. Kub.'
1 = 12 × 12 × 12 russ. Kub.''
25,019 = 1 russ. lb.
x = 114,258.  Zusatz von Marx.
Schließen
Also 100 lbs pr. = 114,258 lbs. russ.
 


Chapter IV. Causes and Effects of the Exchange between Grt. Britain and Ireland.

In Irland die  Foster: excessive issue of paper
Schließen
depreciation der Banknoten
grösser als in England.

Die depreciation-symptoms des Papers:

1) [»]A high and permanent excess of the market price, above the mint price of bullion.« (119)

No regular bullion market [in] Ireland. Aber proved durch the rate at which the bank are forced to issue their new dollars in order to keep them in circulation. (120) Excess of the market price over the mint price operates as a bounty on the melting of the coin. Daher die coin inevitably disappears, unless protected by a seignorage, degradation, adulteration, or by being issued at a nominal value, greatly above its mint price. (120, 121) The new dollars are to be issued in Ireland at a nominal value of 6 Irish shillings, but their value at the mint price, is only 4s. 81/2d. Irish; they are issued therefore at a rate of 27% above their mintprice. The paper may not be depreciated to that extent. The B. o. Ireland may issue at a rate higher than sufficient for their present protection. Aber it proves that bullion is far more valuable in Ireland, than the price at which it is issued in coin by the mint – that is, the price at which the Bank directors promise to pay their notes. (121)

2) An open discount upon paper, as compared with coin. (119) Das Premium for Guineas (nach dem Appendix to the Evidence, p. 44) has progressively advanced (along with the increase of Irish Banknotes) from 3/4 to 10%, since the beginning of 1799. (121)|

46

3) Exchange unfavourable to the country when computed in Banknotes, yet possibly favourable when computed in specie; unfavourable to those parts of the country, where the circulating medium is paper; yet favourable, or at least much less unfavourable, to other parts, whose circulating medium is specie. (119) Sieh Evidence, Appendix, A 1 und A 2, p. 44–47 . As the paper circulating medium of Dublin has progressively increased, the exchange has gradually risen to 10% against it; though, during the same time, it has never been above 2% against Belfast, where the circulating medium was gold. On the contrary, it has generally been in its favour. In Newry, where both paper and gold circulate (the paper at a current discount), there are two rates of exchange, one when the bills are to be purchased or paid in paper, and the other where they are to be purchased or paid in gold[:] the difference of the rates is of course equal to the discount of the paper. (122, 123)

 Bei Foster das fünfte Symptom.
Schließen
4)
The entire disappearance of the smaller coin, which had been in circulation along with specie, but which cannot continue in  Foster: circulation along with
Schließen
circulation with
any other circulating medium of less value.
 (119)

Nach dem Bericht des Committee  Hervorhebung in der Quelle.
Schließen
»it does not appear that there is a single mint shilling or halfpenny circulating in any part of Ireland«
, except in that district of the North where gold still the medium of circulation. (124)

 Bei Foster das vierte Symptom.
Schließen
5)
An Exchange between the different parts of the same country whose circulating media are different. (119)

Z.B. zwischen Belfast und Dublin, the Dublin rates so unfavourable that they nearly (their rates) correspond with the premium for guineas paid in Dublin. (123)

6) Near agreement of these different tests of depreciation, so daß the discount upon the paper, and the unfavourable notes of foreign exchanges, and the rates of the exchanges between the different parts of the same country, and the excess of the market above the mint price of bullion, should all be equal, or very nearly so, to each other. (119, 120)

Appendix to the Evidence shows, that though there has occasionally been a slight difference, it has never been of long duration, and that it may be affirmed generally that they rise and fall together. (124)

Die slight difference differences zeigen, daß das English bank paper auch depreciated. (124) If the B.o.E. notes depreciated, and the real exchange is at par, the premium paid for Guineas in Dublin must equal the unfavourableness of the nominal exchange + the depreciation of English paper. Da der exchange against Dublin is not of Irish paper against gold, but of Irish paper against English paper. (125)

If the Bk. of E. notes depreciated, and the real exchange  Hervorhebung in der Quelle.
Schließen
in favour
of Ireland, the premium paid for guineas in Dublin must equal the depreciation of English paper + the unfavourableness of the nominal exchange ÷ the real exchange in favour of Ireland. Hence, if we add the premium to the real exchange, and substract the nominal exchange from their amount, the remainder must be the depreciation of the English paper. (125)

Premium = depreciation of English paper + nominal exchange - real exchange

∴ Premium + real exchange = depreciation of English paper + nominal exchange

∴ Premium + real exchange - nominal exchange = depreciation of English paper. (125 Note)

Aus dem Appendix zur Evidence folgende Tafel:

Date. Premium paid for gold in Dublin, P.Ct. Nominal Exchange, i.e. of Irish Banknotes against Engl. Banknotes; i.e. Dublin on London against Ireland P.Ct. Exchange of Engl. Banknotes against Irish Gold, i.e. Exchange of Belfast on London.
1803. In favour of Belfast. In favour of London.
January 3 35/12 7/12
February 3 32/3 5/6
March 33/4 41/6 7/12
April 41/4 42/3 7/12
May 41/2 51/6 1/2
June 43/4 411/12 5/12
July 6 65/12 5/12
August 8 85/12 27/12
September 8 61/6 25/6
October 71/2 61/6 21/3
November 9 75/12 25/6
December 9 711/12 31/12
1804.
January 91/2 72/3 21/3
February 10 819/24 7/12
March 9 62/3 27/12. (p. 126)
Zeigt (Monat August seems sudden fluctuation) daß seit September the depreciation of the English Banknote produced a sensible effect upon the exchange, for 8 + 1 - 61/6 = 25/6 = Depreciation of the English paper. Und dieß result nicht – nicht nur in that single month, sondern permanent since that time. (127)|

47

By this mode of calculation, the depreciation of English paper has been:

1803. Premium for Gold. Real Exchange. Nominal Exchange. Depreciation of English Paper.
September 8 + 1 ÷ 61/6 = 25/6
October 71/2 + 1 ÷ 61/6 = 21/3
November 9 + 1 ÷ 75/12 = 27/12
December 9 + 1 ÷ 711/12 = 21/12
1804.
January 91/2 + 1 ÷ 72/3 = 25/6
February 9 + 1 ÷ 811/12 = 25/24
March 9 + 1 ÷ 62/3 = 31/3. (p. 127)

This result agrees with  Hervorhebung in der Quelle.
Schließen
the fact
mentioned by Mr. Burrowes (p. 14 Evidence, that 21/2 p.ct. is now paid to procure gold in London. It agrees also with the excess of the market above the mint price of gold, which gives a depreciation of somewhat less than 3 P.Ct. (127, 128)

Daher auch exchange so much in favour of Belfast, sometimes even 3 P.Ct.; for this was an exchange of gold against B. o. Engl. paper. (128)

Amount of notes issued by Bk. o. Ireland now nearly 5 × as great as when the restriction was imposed; die der Bk.o.E. not quite doubled in the same time. (130) In Irland [»]an issue of small notes was rendered necessary to fill the void left by the gold …« Probably »the entire loss of gold in Ireland, in consequence of the restriction, was 3,000,000l., but that part which was withdrawn from circulation in the country was of course supplied by the notes of country bankers.[«] (130) In Dublin small note in circulation … about 1,200,000. (l.c.) The alarm which prevails in Ireland from political causes, by rendering circulation slower, renders a greater amount of circulation necessary. (130, 131) Something … may be allowed for the increase of commerce and expenditure in Ireland. (131)

The Bank of Ireland does not possess the same control over the country banks as is possessed by the Bk.o.E. in this country: even in Dublin the private bankers are by many supposed equally to divide the market with it. … Zwar: every private banker must pay in Bank of Ireland notes,  Hervorhebung in der Quelle.
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if called on;
but unfortunately the holders at present have little inducement to wish to change the note of a respectable private banker for a note of the Bk. of Ireland. (133)

Every bill which is discounted has a two-fold operation; it increases not merely the capital of the merchant who draws it, but also the amount of circulating medium of the country. (135)

Whatever exertions the private bankers in Dublin may have made, the private bankers in the country have far outstripped them in the race. As the measure of restriction had driven gold out of circulation, so the depreciation of the Irish paper expelled silver; and as the banishment of the gold had operated such a prodigious increase of profit, and opened such new opportunities in the banking system, so the annihilation of silver gave birth to a new race of bankers, with new principles and with new gains. Degraded as the silver currency of England is, such counters as pass for shillings here could not afford to circulate in Ireland; if sent into Ireland they must instantly return; they obtain a better price when exchanged for the pounds of England than for the depreciated pounds of Ireland: like every other commodity, therefore, they seek the best market; they leave Ireland, and return to England. (135)

I speak of those shillings which are to be exchanged for Irish paper; for in the North of Ireland, where gold continues in circulation, the silver is at least as good as in England. (136) Paper shillings were at length resorted to  Zusatz von Marx.
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(in Ireland)
, perhaps as a substance cheaper than base metal. (136)

In Dublin, where, from the extent of the retail business, paper shillings were inadmissible, the base metal continued as the medium of circulation until its currency was annihilated by an hasty order of the Irish treasury. Dublin then presented the phenomenon of a great city literally deprived of all circulating medium of less denomination than one pound, and the distress that has ensued may be more easily conceived than described. (137)

In the country it was deemed more eligible to substitute paper shillings than to continue to receive the base metal: it accordingly disappeared, and promissory notes for all sums, so low as sixpence, took place. Banking on a small scale soon became not only one of the most lucrative, but one of the most common trades. When once it was discovered that coining was no longer illegal, provided it was executed on paper, many … applied themselves to so profitable a business. The towns and villages of Ireland swarmed with bankers, issuing their promissory notes for crowns, half-crowns, shillings, and sixpences, promising to pay the same in B. o. Ireland notes whenever a sufficient sum should be tendered. (137)

Z.B. a village habe 10 bankers, 1000 inhabitants. Besizt jeder inhabitants inhabitant 19s. von jedem der Banker  Zusatz von Marx.
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(also jeder 190sh. in den verschiednen Notes)
, so zusammen 95,000l. sent into circulation. Dannach unmöglich to call on any one banker for payment.  Zusatz von Marx.
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(da das geringste £ of Ireland Bank Note = 1£ = 21sh.)
… besides, these bankers are sufficiently ingenious to issue notes of such amounts that it is very difficult to combine them into pounds: and finally, if pressed for payment, notwithstanding all these defences, the resource of bankruptcy is still left to them; and it is melancholy to hear how many have resorted to it. ([137,] 138) According to the system pursued in Ireland, the number of banks issuing notes … in every place inversely as the extent of its commerce. London is supplied by one, Dublin by four; 12 … insufficient for Skibbereen; 23 … in Yonghal, a town … which it may be doubted whether there are 23 persons who follow any other trade … Auch female bankers … not uncommon. (138, 139)

All persons deriving their subsistance from a fixed income, are reduced in circumstances, in the ratio of the depreciation of the Irish paper, that is, about 8 or 10%. All persons engaged in foreign trade, in order to ensure themselves from the immense losses which they might incur, in consequence of the frequent fluctuations of exchange, must charge an extra profit on their transactions, falling on the consumer, in the import trade, and tending to exclude Ireland from the foreign market in the export. (140) All retail dealers, manufacturers, labourers, and all the lower classes, are reduced to difficulties … impossible to describe, by the depreciation and uncertain value of silver-notes in most parts of Ireland, or by the absolute annihilation of all circulating medium less than one pound. (140, 141)

All persons forced to pay in gold, and to receive payment in paper, a grievance too common in North Ireland, are sufferers. (141)

Dann die holders der vielen forged notes, which arise from the universal system of banking pursued in Ireland; all holders of the silver notes of the petty bankers in the villages of Ireland, lose when the issuers become bankrupt. (141)

All persons who had in their possession the base coin, which passed current in Dublin etc losers when that coin was cried down. Some master manufacturers who possessed great quantities (often so much as 500£ worth), incurred a loss from 50 to 80 P.Ct. on that account. (141)

Wer gewinnt durch das System? 1) The absentees. For the rents paid in paper to their agents in Ireland, purchase bills in Dublin, which, when remitted to London, produce a quantity of gold greater than what they would have exchanged for in Ireland. This arises from the real exchange; i.e., the exchange calculated in gold being favourable to Ireland. (142)|

48

 Nummerierung von Marx.
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2)
The proprietors of the Bank of Ireland stock. The Directors have increased their dividend von 61/2 to 71/2%, und bonus of 5% last year, zusammen 121/2%.

 Nummerierung von Marx.
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3)
The merchants who obtain such extensive discount … extended to an amount which the Directors themselves confess could not exist were the restriction taken off. (143)

 Nummerierung von Marx.
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4)
The Government, durch die advances, die ihnen ohne die restriction nicht gemacht werden könnten. (143)

 Nummerierung von Marx.
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5)
The private bankers in Dublin. (144)

 Nummerierung von Marx.
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6)
The silver note bankers in the South of Ireland. They are mere coiners … denen sogar ihr Material costs nothing, not even the expense of stamps, of which they have hitherto defrauded the revenue. (144)

 Nummerierung von Marx.
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7)
All agents in the North of Ireland, possessing sufficient influence to force the tenants of the absentee proprietor to pay in gold, and who pays them the next day in paper, gain 8 or 10% at the expense of the tenants; and if those agents remit the rents, paid in gold, through Dublin and not through Belfast, they then become gainers of 8 or 10% at the expense of the landlords. (144)

 Nummerierung von Marx.
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8)
The dealers in Exchange.

They who conceive that the profits of such dealers arise from remitting capital at a high exchange, in order to draw it back again when low, have formed a very inadequate idea of the subject. Such a speculation would be mere gambling, and might be productive of loss, as probably as of gain; but the commerce in exchange is founded not on the probable variation of exchanges at different times, but on its actual variation at the same time in different places. (145)

When the rates of exchange are low, both in London and Dublin, the difference between them would afford rather a greater profit to the dealer, than he could obtain from the same difference existing between higher rates. … Aber er findet from experience, that the difference of exchange is generally greater, when the rates are high than when they are low; and therefore, although he would prefer a difference of 21/2 or 3% on a low rate of exchange, yet as such a difference does not occur, except when the exchange is high, he prefers the high rate; the gain resulting from the greatness of the difference being infinitely more important than the loss occasioned by the hight height of the rate. The following calculations founded on the supposition of high rates, and of course states the gains of the dealers as still less than they would have appeared on the supposition of the rates being low. (145, 146)

First suppose the exchange in London is 117, and in Dublin 115. Difference = 2%, which very frequently occurs. (146)

The dealer in London invests 1000£ British in the purchase of a bill on Dublin, at 21 days date, of the amount of 1170l. Irish. He makes this purchase on Monday morning, and sends the bill to Dublin for payment in that night’s mail; it arrives there on Thursday morning, and is discounted on that day.

There will then be to be deducted from: £1170. (Irish)
Discount at 5% 21 days, 3 days grace £3, 16. 111/4
Expense of Postage 0. 2  2
Total: 3. 19. 11/4
He receives therefore on Thursday Morning: 1166. 0. 103/4 Irish.
With this he purchases the next day, Friday, a bill on London of 21 days date, which, at an exchange of 15% produces (British) 1013l. 18s. 4d.

This bill leaves Dublin on Saturday, and may arrive in London on Tuesday morning. Mit ungünstigem Wind say on Thursday morning, also on the 10th day after the 1000l. had left London in the shape of a bill on Ireland. (147[, 148])

( Zusatz von Marx.
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It ought to be remembered:
No brokerage is charged in Dublin, nor any commission in a transaction of this nature, which is between correspondents having a joint account. 147 Note)

The dealer offers it on the same day (Thursday) to be discounted:

To be deducted from (British) £1013. 18. 4.
Discount at 5% 21 days date grace £3. 6. 8.
Brokerage at 1s. 10d.% 1. 0. 3
Postage 0. 2. 0
Total deducted: 4. 8. 11.
Rests: 1009. 9. 5.
This 9l. 9s. 5d. all profit, which this 1000l. has cleared by its journey to Dublin; it is 18s. 111/3d. P.Ct. for 10 days. Diese transaction dann fortwährend wiederholt mit den £1000. Wenn es returns 36 times to the owner in the course of a year, 341l. Profit = 34l. 2s. PCt. p. annum. Wenn die 1000£ nur einmal in 14 Tagen returniren, Profit 23l. 13s. 61/2d. p.a. (148, 149)

 Zusatz von Marx.
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Dieser enorme Profit von
1000£, without having once served as the medium of exchange for any other commodity than paper during the whole of that time. (149)

It has hitherto been supposed that the bills in which the 1000l. have been invested, have been drawn by merchants and bankers; but if they are drawn by persons not in trade, f.i., by the absentee proprietors, the profits become much greater. Suppose all the 36 bills drawn in London, have been drawn by absentees. When exchange in London is 17, and in Dublin 15, the person not in trade, for 100£ English, paid to him by his banker, gives his bill on Dublin, at 21 days sight, for 118l., that is, one % more than the current rate. (150)

1000l. British, at exchange 118, produces a bill on Dublin for (Irish) £.1180. 0. 0
Discount 24 days £3. 17. 71/4
Postage 0. 2. 2.
Total to be deducted 3. 19. 91/4
Total received in Dublin 1176. 0. 21/4
1176£ Irish at exchange 115 purchases a bill on London for (British) 1022. 12. 2
Discount 24 days £3. 6. 2.
Brokerage 1. 0. 6.
Postage 0. 2. 0.
Total to be deducted 4. 8. 8
Total to be received in London £.1018. 3. 6.
The 1000£ British have cleared 18l. 3s. 6d. by its journey; at 25 returns in the year = 45l. 8s. 5d., at 36 returns: 64l. 16s. (151)|

49

The average difference for 3 months together was, 1£. 13s. 8d.; von 2 Oct. 1803 till 10t Difference = 3%, 10th – 22d = 21/2, it then fell to 11/2%; 14 Nov. – 22d = 2%, 13 – 31 Dec. = 21/4 und 2. (154 Note)

Two prices exist in the North of Ireland, for all commodities, the gold price and the silver price. (120 Note)

Inhalt:

  • Inhaltsverzeichnis von Friedrich Engels
  • Heft II. 1869
  • The Daily News, 20. Mai 1869
    • Notiz
      • Kaufmannsrechnung. (Continuatio)
      • John Leslie Foster, (of Lincoln’s Inn): An Essay on the Principle of Commercial Exchanges. London. 1804.
      • Ch. Lyell. Principles of Geology. 7th ed. London 1847.
      • Otto Hausner: Vergleichende Statistik von Europa (Lemberg. 1865) II. Band.
      • Michael Thomas Sadler. M.P.: Ireland; its Evils and their Remedies. 2nd ed. London. 1829